Philine quadrata

Philine quadrata (S. Wood, 1839)

Philine quadrata @ Artsdatabanken - Cephalaspids of Norway by Manuel Malaquias
Class: Gastropoda  Cuvier, 1797
Subclass: Heterobranchia  J.E. Gray, 1840
Clade: Euthyneura  Spengel, 1881
Clade: Euopisthobranchia  Jörger et al., 2010
Clade: Cephalaspidea  P. Fischer, 1883
Superfamily: Philinoidea  J.E. Gray, 1850
Family: Philinidae  J.E. Gray, 1850
Genus: Philine  Ascanius, 1772
Species: Philine quadrata (S. Wood, 1839) [Bullaea]


  • Bulla quadrata S. Wood, 1839 (original)
  • Ossiania quadrata (S. Wood, 1839)
  • Philine formosa Stimpson, 1850
  • Philine polaris Aurivillius, 1887
  • Philine scutulum Lovén, 1846
  • Retusophiline polaris (Aurivillius, 1887)




  • Philine. Derived from the Greek word “philos” which means “friend”.
  • Quadrata. From the Latin “quadratus”, square, from “quattuor”, four.


Known georeferenced records of the species: Philine quadrata (z-200).
: GROC 2010-2011 : VIMAR
: Enric Madrenas : Manuel Ballesteros.
: João Pedro Silva : M@re Nostrum
: Bernard Picton : Other sources
: GBIF.ORG : Marine Regions

References for the species: Philine quadrata

    Cantabria: Pruvot-Fol (1954, as Laona), Ortea (1977c, as Laona). Galicia: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). Portugal: Nordsieck (1972, as Laona). Azores: Watson (1886), Dautzenberg (1889), Nordsieck (1972, as Laona (Ossiania)), Mikkelsen (1995), Linden (1995), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001).

    Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.


        Western Mediterranean:0 Stars
        Eastern Mediterranean:0.0 Stars
        Atlantic Ocean:0.0 Stars
This chart displays the observation probability for Philine quadrata
based on our own records.

More pictures


Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes et al. (2012-2017) "Philine quadrata" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 11/09/2014, Accessed: 17/10/2017 at (

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