Philine quadripartita

Philine quadripartita (Ascanius, 1772)

Philine_quadripartita 2 15mm @ Wied iz-Zurrieq, Malta 36m depth 27-08-1995 by Carmel Sammut
Class: Gastropoda  Cuvier, 1797
Subclass: Heterobranchia  J.E. Gray, 1840
Clade: Euthyneura  Spengel, 1881
Clade: Euopisthobranchia  Jörger et al., 2010
Clade: Cephalaspidea  P. Fischer, 1883
Superfamily: Philinoidea  J.E. Gray, 1850
Family: Philinidae  J.E. Gray, 1850
Genus: Philine  Ascanius, 1772
Species: Philine quadripartita  Ascanius, 1772


  • Bulla bulla da Costa, 1778
  • Bullaea planciana Lamarck, 1801
  • Bullaea quadripartita (Ascanius, 1772)
  • Bullaea schroeteri Philippi, 1844
  • Lobaria quadriloba O. F. Müller, 1776
  • Lobaria quadrilobata Gmelin, 1791
  • Philine aperta (Linnaeus, 1767) sensu Jeffreys, 1867 (wrong identification)
  • Philine aperta var. patula Jeffreys, 1867
  • Philine apertissima de Folin, 1893
  • Philine milneedwardsi Locard, 1897

Originally posted at many websites as Philine aperta (Linnaeus, 1767) [Bulla], it changed into Philine quadripartita Ascanius, 1772. Ref. WoRMS: “Philine aperta and P. quadripartita have long been treated as synonyms. However, according to Price et al. (2011), based on anatomy, there are two distinct species, the first one in South Africa and Mozambique, the second one in European seas.”




  • Philine. Derived from the Greek word “philos” which means ‘friend’.
  • Quadripartita. From the Latin “quadratus”, square, from “quattuor”, four + “Partita”, feminine of “partītus”, shared, parted, distributed, divided, having been shared.


Known georeferenced records of the species: Philine quadripartita (z-200).
: GROC 2010-2011 : VIMAR
: Enric Madrenas : Manuel Ballesteros.
: João Pedro Silva : M@re Nostrum
: Bernard Picton : Other sources
: GBIF.ORG : Marine Regions

References for the species: Philine quadripartita

    Cantabria: Hidalgo (1917), Ortea (1977c, as P. quadripartita), Flor et al. (1981, as P. quadripartita), Borja (1987), Lastra et al. (1988), Ávila Escartín (1993). Galicia: Hidalgo (1917), Margalef (1958), Cadee, (1968), Hernández and Jiménez (1972), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Laborda and Maze (1987). Portugal: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1936), Saldanha (1974), Calvário (1986), García-Gómez et al. (1991, as P. cf. aperta), Machado and Fonseca (1997), Calado et al. (1999), Malaquias and Morenito (2000, as P. cf. aperta). Andalucía (Atl.): Hidalgo (1917). Gibraltar: Rueda, Salas and Gofas (2000). Andalucía (Med.): Hidalgo (1917), Luque (1983, 1986), Ávila Escartín (1993). Levante: Hidalgo (1917), Murillo and Talavera (1983), Olmo and Ros (1984), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987), Marín and Ros (1987), García Raso et al. (1992). Catalunya: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1976, 1980, citada como P. quadripartita), Ros (1975, 1978, citada como P. quadripartita), Ballesteros (1983), Ávila (1993), Giribet & Peñas (1997), Domènech et al. (2006). Baleares: Hidalgo (19I7), Altimira (1972), Luque and Templado (1981). Canarias: Moro et al. (2003). Madeira: McAndrew (1852), Watson (1897), Nobre (1937), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as P. quadripartita), Linden (1995), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002).

    Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.


        Western Mediterranean:0 Stars
        Eastern Mediterranean:0 Stars
        Atlantic Ocean:0 Stars
This chart displays the observation probability for Philine quadripartita
based on our own records.

More pictures

Yellow and white specimens, once compared by specialysts, seem to be conspecific.


Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes et al. (2012-2017) "Philine quadripartita" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 05/09/2013, Accessed: 25/09/2017 at (

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