Calmella cavolini (Verany, 1846)
by Enric MadrenasTaxonomy
Class: Gastropoda Cuvier, 1797
Subclass: Heterobranchia J.E. Gray, 1840
Clade: Euthyneura Spengel, 1881
Clade: Nudipleura Wägele & Willan, 2000
Order: Nudibranchia Cuvier, 1817
Suborder: Dexiarchia Schrödl, Wägele & Willan, 2001
Infraorder: Cladobranchia Willan & Morton, 1984
Parvorder: Aeolidida Odhner, 1934
Superfamily: Flabellinoidea Bergh, 1889
Family: Flabellinidae Bergh, 1889
Genus: Calmella Eliot, 1906
Species: Calmella cavolini (Vérany, 1846) [Eolidia]
- Aeolis digitata Costa A., 1866
- Eolidia cavolini Vérany, 1846 (original)
- Jojenia rubrobranchiata Aradas, 1847
This is a small aeolidacean species that rarely exceeds 10 mm in length. Its small size, the coloration of its cerata and its morphology make it distinctive in the environment. The body is narrow, elongated and colored opaque white, sometimes with a slightly iridescent blue shade. The white oral tentacles and rhinophores are long and slender, of almost the same length; some specimens may have orange pigmented tips. The rhinophores are smooth throughout its length. On the back of the head and front of the rhinophores there can be seen two purplish spots, corresponding to the animal jaws, seen by transparency. There can be up to 7 groups of cerata on each side of the body. The cerata of each group come from the same dorsal stalk, that can be bifurcated or trifurcated, something characteristic of several species in the Flabellinidae family. The cerata are semitransparent and the orange or red colored digestive gland can be observed through the skin, the top being more pigmented than the rest. The apex of the cerata is white, and the cnidosac could be observed inside. The foot is semitransparent and has a pair of short propodial palps in its anterior zone. The tail is long and very narrow.
This species is fairly common all year long in shallow rocky walls with abundance of sciaphilic algae, sponges and hydroids. It is usually found associated to hydrarians as Halecium pusillum and Eudendrium racemosum, from which it may feed upon. Is also located on the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata. The spawn has the form of a narrow spiral ribbon of pinkish eggs about 100 microns in diameter.
- Calmella. Maybe related to the village of Sant Feliu de Calmella (Saint-Félix de Calmeilles in French), in the Department of Pyrénées-Orientales, in the Region of Languedoc-Roussillon, France, close to the Banyuls-sur-Mer oceanographic station
- Cavolini. In honor of Filippo Cavolini (1756-1810), who was a rich merchant and one of the earliest marine zoologists. In 1785 and 1792 he published a few articles about polyps, fishes and crustaceans. He had built a special laboratory in his villa in Posillipo. In 1813 it was posthumously published “Abhandlungen über die Pflanzenthiere des Mittelmeeres”.
So far this is a strictly Mediterranean species, found mainly in the western basin. Recent observations have cited it in Turkish waters. In the Iberian Peninsula has been observed in the Mediterranean coast of Andalusia, in the southeastern coast, in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. The Catalan locations where it has been cited are: the Cap de Creus and Es Caials (Cadaqués), L’Escala, Illes Medes (L’Estartit), Cala Aiguafreda (Begur), Palamos, Tossa de Mar, Cala Canyelles and Cala Santa Cristina (Lloret de Mar), Blanes, Badalona, the Barcelona harbor, Cubelles and in the beach of La Pineda (Salou).
|: OBIS||: OPK|
|: GROC 2010-2011||: VIMAR|
|: Enric Madrenas||: Manuel Ballesteros.|
|: João Pedro Silva||: M@re Nostrum|
|: Bernard Picton||: Other sources|
|: GBIF.ORG||: Marine Regions|
References for the species: Calmella cavolini
Andalucía (Med.): Ballesteros et al. (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Levante: De Fez (1974), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987). Catalunya: Ros (1975,1978b), Ballesteros (1978, 1980, 1985, 1985), Altimira et al. (1981), Pereira & Ballesteros (1982), Huelin & Ros (1984), M@re Nostrum [Punta del Ferro (L'Escala) 4/2000, Illa Rodona (Llançà) 11/1998]. Baleares: Ballesteros (1981a, 1985), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Dekker (1986).General: Cattaneo-Vietti, Chemello, & Giannuzzi-Savelli, 1990:165[P]; Fez Sanchez, 1974:105; Nordsieck, 1972:74; Perrone, 1986a:33; Pruvot-Fol, 1948b:273; 1951:62; 1953b:51[P]; 1954b:415; Riedl, 1970:431; 1983:326; Schmekel, 1970:1434; Schmekel & Portmann, 1982:193[P]; Thompson, 1976a:[P]; Vayssiere, 1913a:295; Vicente, 1967:160
Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.
This chart displays the observation probability for Calmella cavolini
based on our own records.
Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.