Facelina auriculata (Müller, 1776)
Facelina auriculata @ Aiguafreda (Begur), 10-04-2010 by Miquel PontesTaxonomy
Class: Gastropoda Cuvier, 1797
Subclass: Heterobranchia J.E. Gray, 1840
Clade: Euthyneura Spengel, 1881
Clade: Nudipleura Wägele & Willan, 2000
Order: Nudibranchia Cuvier, 1817
Suborder: Dexiarchia Schrödl, Wägele & Willan, 2001
Infraorder: Cladobranchia Willan & Morton, 1984
Parvorder: Aeolidida Odhner, 1934
Superfamily: Aeolidioidea J.E. Gray, 1827
Family: Facelinidae Bergh, 1889
Genus: Facelina Alder & Hancock, 1855
Species: Facelina auriculata (O.F. Müller, 1776) [Doris]
- Doris auriculata Müller, 1776 (original)
- Doris longicornis Montagu, 1808
- Eolidia coronata Forbes & Goodsir, 1839
- Eolidia plumosa Fleming, 1828
- Facelina auriculata coronata (Forbes & Goodsir, 1839)
- Facelina coronata (Forbes & Goodsir, 1839)
- Facelina plumosa (Fleming, 1828)
- Hervia modesta Bergh, 1871
It is a large size facelinid which generally measures between 20 and 30 mm in length, although specimens up to 52 mm have been cited in the Mediterranean. The body is generally translucent white but internal viscera give it a smooth cream tonality. Cephalic area and the front of the dorsum have a slightly iridescent blue coloration over a pink background. Behind the rhinophores, body transparence allows to see the esophagus as a thick bead curved to the left, colored pink or red depending of the specimens. The oral tentacles are long, with the base iridescent blue and the tips white. The rhinophores have 8-10 thin lamellae and are colored yellow, with strongly iridescent cream color on their front face. The eyes can be seen behind and outside of the base of each rhinophore. There are groups of 6 to 8 cerata at each side of the back, of which the first three have 2-3 rows of cerata and the rest only one row. Between the first and second group of cerata there is the cardiac region. From the second group of cerata, these homogeneously cover the animal’s dorsal area. The cerata are long and narrow and they show, by transparency, the reddish brown digestive gland inside. The front side of the cerata is iridescent blue, something that clearly identifies this species. The apexes of the cerata are transparent and a very close inspection reveals several white spots on the skin. The foot is narrow and transparent; diverting into two short propodial palps on its front side.
This species is very active and often found wandering on rocky and dimly lit walls where hydrarians thrive; it may also be located under rocks. Usually feeds on different hydrarian species such as Podocoryne sp., Clava sp., Obelia geniculata, Tubularia indivisa, T. larynx, Dynamene pusilla, Cordylophora caspia and Laomedea flexuosa, although it has been proven it can also prey on stauromedusae (stalked jellyfish) of the gender Lucernaria, other nudibranchs and even polychaetes. The spawn is a spiral cord that may contain several thousand white eggs.
- Facelina – Latin for “lined face”.
- Auriculata – From Latin “auricula”, ear, lobe of the ear; referring to the characteristically shaped rhinophores.
F. auriculata has been quoted recently under his synonymous with F. coronata. This European species has been recorded from the coasts of Norway, the British Isles and Ireland, the Dutch and Belgian coasts, the Atlantic coast of France, the Iberian Peninsula including the Portuguese coast, the Canary Islands and the western Mediterranean. In the Catalan coast it has been observed in localities as Es Caials (Cadaqués), Formigues Islands (Calella), Tamariu, Llafranc, Tossa de Mar, Blanes and Cubelles.
|: OBIS||: OPK|
|: GROC 2010-2011||: VIMAR|
|: Enric Madrenas||: Manuel Ballesteros.|
|: João Pedro Silva||: M@re Nostrum|
|: Bernard Picton||: Other sources|
|: GBIF.ORG||: Marine Regions|
References for the species: Facelina auriculata
Cantabria: Ortea (1977c), Lastra et al. (1988, as F. auriculata). Galicia: Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983). Portugal: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). Andalucía (Atl.): Cervera and García (1986, as F. auriculata). Gibraltar: García-Gómez (1983, 2002), García-Gómez et al. (1989). Andalucía (Med.): Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988, as F. auriculata), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). Levante: Fez (1974), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Marín and Ros (1987, as F. auriculata). Catalunya: Ros (1975, 1978), Ballesteros (1980, 1984, 1985), Pereira & Ballesteros (1982), M@re Nostrum [Cala Rovellada (Colera) 1/2001 y Cap Ras (Llançà) 5/2000] como Facelina coronata. Canarias: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003, as F. auriculata).General: Abric, 1904a:6; Loman, 1893:35; Vayssiere, 1888d:37; 1913a:272 as Acanthopsole coronata; Eliot, 1910d:172; McMillan, 1968:71; Odhner, 1939:80; Picton & Morrow, 1994:122[P]; Riedl, 1983:327; Thompson & Brown, 1976:151 as Facelina auriculata; Bergh, 1877a:825; Brown, 1981:335; Brown & Picton, 1979:20; Cuenot, 1906:103; Edmunds, 1969:[P]; Garstang, 1890:441; Hayward, Wigham, & Yonow, 1990:722; Herdman & Clubb, 1889:233; Hoffmann, 1926:21; Hunnam & Brown, 1975:152; Jutting & Engel, 1936:68; Marcus, 1958a:57; Nobre, 1931:31; 1936:22; 1938-40:72; Nordsieck, 1972:78; Pruvot-Fol, 1954b:387; Sabelli, Giannuzzi-Savelli, & Bedulli, 1990:449; Thompson, 1988:318[P]; Thompson & Brown, 1984:150[P]; Trinchese, 1881:42; 1881a:42 as Facelina coronata
Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.
This chart displays the observation probability for Facelina auriculata
based on our own records.
Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.