Rubramoena amoena (Alder & Hancock, 1845)
Rubramoena amoena 6 mm @ Lephinchapel, Loch Fyne, Scotland 15m 5-10-2008 by Jim AndersonTaxonomy
Class: Gastropoda Cuvier, 1797
Subclass: Heterobranchia J.E. Gray, 1840
Clade: Euthyneura Spengel, 1881
Clade: Nudipleura Wägele & Willan, 2000
Order: Nudibranchia Cuvier, 1817
Suborder: Dexiarchia Schrödl, Wägele & Willan, 2001
Infraorder: Cladobranchia Willan & Morton, 1984
Parvorder: Aeolidida Odhner, 1934
Superfamily: Fionoidea Gray, 1857
Family: Fionidae Gray, 1857
Genus: Rubramoena Cella, Carmona, Ekimova, Chichvarkhin, Schepetov & Gosliner, 2016
Species: Rubramoena amoena (Alder & Hancock, 1845) [Eolis]
Taxonomic note: The phylogenetic analyses performed by Cella et al. (2016) revealed that the traditional Tergipedidae family is polyphyletic and belongs to a larger monophyletic clade including members of the traditional families Eubranchidae, Fionidae and Calmidae; this was an unexpected result, since the validity of these taxa and their distinctness from the Tergipedidae was never questioned before. They proposed to join the families Tergipedidae, Eubranchidae, Calmidae and Fionidae under the name of Fionidae. Within Fionidae, obtained results demonstrated the need of developing a new classification as previous classifications (for instance, separating Catriona, Cuthona and Trinchesia as distinct taxa) were inconsistent with the resulting phylogeny. Analyses also recover a clade (Tenellia) that includes all members of the genera Tenellia, Trinchesia, Phestilla, Catriona and the majority of described and undescribed Cuthona species. New genera Rubramoena, Abronica and Tergiposacca are proposed to group other species. This molecular study also suggests that Fionidae is rich in cryptic species complexes, difficult to separate by traditional taxonomic characters, and previously undetected species diversity.
Korshunova et al. (2017) present some phylogenies based on morphological characters (which may be parological) to reclassify this group. In addition, for molecular phylogeny they use the COI gene (not useful to separate genera) instead of i.e. the H3 gene, so the hypotheses presented are weak. For this reason we keep the last classification until the status of this species is cleared.
- Eolis amoena Alder & Hancock, 1845
- Trinchesia amoena (Alder & Hancock, 1845)
- Cuthona amoena (Alder & Hancock, 1845)
Typically measuring 10 mm in length, it has a translucent body with patches of brown at the base of the cerata, and characteristic brown rings on the rhinophores and oral tentacles. The upper part of the body and the cerata are sprayed with golden or yellowish irregular dots, being more dense at the tips of the head tentacles and cerata. The jaws are visible by transparency in the head. The foot is narrow, with the anterior margin slightly lobed, and a little rounded and widened at the sides.
It is usually found on the hydroid Halecium halecinum, that seems to be its food. The spawn is a thin white waved thread, usually wound around the branches of its food, or forming an spiral of two or three turns.
- Rubramoena. Refers to the specific names of the two species it contains, Rubramoena amoena (type species) and Rubramoena rubescens.
- Amoena. It is the feminine word for Latin word “amoenus”, pleasant, lovely, beautiful.
From Norway and the Orkney down to the Mediterranean. Common around the British Isles and Ireland. In the Iberian Peninsula it has been cited in the Atlantic northern shore of Spain, also in Galicia and Portugal. In the Mediterranean it is reported from Catalunya, from the Italian Salento and the Adriatic Sea. In Catalan waters it has been found at Cap de Creus, also in Begur, Palamós, Sant Feliu de Guíxols and Mataró.
|: OBIS||: OPK|
|: GROC 2010-2011||: VIMAR|
|: Enric Madrenas||: Manuel Ballesteros.|
|: João Pedro Silva||: M@re Nostrum|
|: Bernard Picton||: Other sources|
|: GBIF.ORG||: Marine Regions|
References for the species: Rubramoena amoena
Cantabria: Ortea (1977c, as Cratenopsis). Galicia: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Rolán (1983). Portugal: Calado et al. (2003). Gibraltar: García-Gómez (1983, 2002). Catalunya: Ballesteros (1980, 1985).General: Nordsieck, 1972:81 as Cratenopsis amoena; Pruvot-Fol, 1953b:52[P]; 1954b:384; Sordi & Majidi, 1956:241; Thompson & Brown, 1976:188 as Trinchesia amoena; Brown, 1980:247; Brown & Picton, 1979:7; Dekker, 1985a:71; 1989:104; Hayward, Wigham, & Yonow, 1990:726; Picton & Morrow, 1994:98[P]; Swennen, 1987:47; Thompson, 1988:264; Thompson & Brown, 1984:117[P]; Vayssiere, 1913a:281 as Cuthona amoena
Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.
This chart displays the observation probability for Rubramoena amoena
based on our own records.
Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.