Spurilla neapolitana (delle Chaije, 1823)
Spurilla neapolitana by Enric MadrenasTaxonomy
Class: Gastropoda Cuvier, 1797
Subclass: Heterobranchia J.E. Gray, 1840
Clade: Euthyneura Spengel, 1881
Clade: Nudipleura Wägele & Willan, 2000
Order: Nudibranchia Cuvier, 1817
Suborder: Dexiarchia Schrödl, Wägele & Willan, 2001
Infraorder: Cladobranchia Willan & Morton, 1984
Parvorder: Aeolidida Odhner, 1934
Superfamily: Aeolidioidea J.E. Gray, 1827
Family: Aeolidiidae J.E. Gray, 1827
Genus: Spurilla Bergh, 1864
Species: Spurilla neapolitana (delle Chiaje, 1823) [Eolis]
- Eolis alderiana Deshayes, 1865
- Eolis conspersa Fischer P., 1869
- Eolis neapolitana Delle Chiaje, 1841 (original)
- Flabellina inornata A. Costa, 1866
- Spurilla mograbina Pruvot-Fol, 1953
- Spurilla vayssierei Garcia-Gomez & Cervera, 1985
The specimens of this species can reach over 40 mm in length. The body is coloured pink or light brown pink deppending on specimens, with a somewhat darker dorsum. There are often small white spots on the head, heart area, rhinophores and cerata, giving the body a characteristic mottled appearance. Starting from the heart and towards the tail there is usually an iridescent white line running along the middle dorsal area of the body. Oral tentacles are relatively long and coloured light brown with orange spots. The rhinophores are whitish but they often have the back of the lamellae coloured light brown. The base of the rhinophores has no lamellae, but the upper half has oblique lamellae, some of which are located on the rhinophore dorsal area. The eyes are right behind the base of the rhinophores. The cerata are gathered up in 9 groups on each side of the body. The cerata of each group insert in the body wall forming an arch or saddle. Between the first and second group of cerata there is the cardiac region, where heart contractions, and the separation between the ventricle and atrium, can be observed in live animals. The cerata are long but they have a very characteristic curved shape at the end and are coloured olive green or brown due to the digestive gland that is inside; they can also have whitish spots. The digestive gland extends by dendritic branching around the dorsum, the head region, the oral tentacles and rhinophores of the animal, and is visible by transparency. The larger cerata of each group correspond to the ones located more dorsally, and their size decreases as they are inserted more laterally. The foot is large, coloured light pink, and on the front end it has a pair of short, rounded propodial palps.
This species lives under stones and can be relatively abundant in shallow areas and tidal pools with plenty of loose stones, where it is often found feeding on actiniarians as Anemonia viridis, Aiptasia mutabilis, Bunodactis rubripunctata among other species. The spawn is also laid on the lower face of stones and has the shape of an scalloped narrow cord wound in a spiral of 2-3 turns with a diameter of about 2 cm, and white eggs about 90 microns in size, tightly placed in the cord. Spurilla neapolitana is often parasitized by the endoparasitic copepod crustacean of the genus Splanchnotrophus. During the breeding season of this copepod, females are fertilized by the male body within the nudibranch, and produce a voluminous spawn like a white or pink cord projecting to the outside of the nudibranch body, that can easily be seen between the cerata of the nudibranch. The effects of this parasitism in the nudibranch health are unknown.
- Spurilla could derive from classic Latin spurium: “marine animal of a similar shape” or spurius: “of ilegitimate birth”, spurious
- Neapolitana, related to Naples [Napoli] (Italy)
It is a species with a wide geographical distribution, having been cited in the Caribbean (Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Gulf of Mexico, Jamaica, Puerto Rico), Cape Verde archipielago, the Canary islands, Madeira, Açores and European continent shores, both in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. In the Iberian Peninsula it has been found in all coastal areas, also in the Balearic islands. In Catalonia it is common under stones and in very shallow water in Cubelles and Recó de Salou, and it has been freqüently observed in some localities of the Costa Brava such as Tossa de Mar, Aiguafreda, Sa Tuna and Cadaqués, among others.
|: OBIS||: OPK|
|: GROC 2010-2011||: VIMAR|
|: Enric Madrenas||: Manuel Ballesteros.|
|: João Pedro Silva||: M@re Nostrum|
|: Bernard Picton||: Other sources|
|: GBIF.ORG||: Marine Regions|
References for the species: Spurilla neapolitana
Cantabria: Ros (1975), Ortea (1977c), Fernández-Ovies (1981). Galicia: Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983). Portugal: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Malaquias and Morenito (2000), Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Muzavor and Morenito (1999, as S. vayssierei). Andalucía (Atl.): García-Gómez and Cervera (1985), Cervera and García (1986). Gibraltar: García-Gómez (1983, 2002). Andalucía (Med.): Luque (1983, 1986), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). Levante: Fez (1974), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987, 1991). Catalunya: Vilella (1968), Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a), Ros & Altimira (1977), Ballesteros (1977, 1978, 1980, 1984, 1985), Giribet & Peñas (1997), Domènech et al. (2002), M@re Nostrum [La Foradada (Portbou) 10/1999, Illa Mateua (L'Escala) 8/1998]. Baleares: Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986). Canarias: Odhner (1931), Nordsieck (1972), Altimira and Ros (1979), Pérez Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Malaquias (2000), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Madeira: Wirtz (1999). Azores: Simroth (1888), Wirtz (1998) (both records as S. sargassicola), Malaquias (2001).General: Ballesteros, 1977:7; 1985:34; Barletta, 1981:121[P]; Bergh, 1868:205; Cattaneo-Vietti, Chemello, & Giannuzzi-Savelli, 1990:195[P]; Cesari, 1990:[P]; Cuenot, 1906:99; Edmunds & Just, 1983:200; Eliot, 1906d:153; Engel, 1925:46; Eyster, 1980:593; Fez Sanchez, 1974:75; Garcia & Cervera, 1985:138; Gosliner, 1980:64; Jensen & Clark, 1986:455; Just & Edmunds, 1985:142[P]; Labbe, 1932:451; Marcus, 1955:184; 1957:475; 1976b:146; Marcus & Marcus, 1960a:187; 1960b:258; 1966:198; 1967:118; 1970a:89; Mazzarelli, 1903:286; Nordsieck, 1972:83; Perrone, 1983b:138; Pruvot-Fol, 1951:55; 1954b:433; Riedl, 1970:433; 1983:327; Schmekel, 1970:156; Schmekel & Portmann, 1982:228; Sordi & Majidi, 1956:243; Swennen, 1961a:71; Tchang Si, 1931a:132; Vayssiere, 1888d:112; 1913a:300
Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.
This chart displays the observation probability for Spurilla neapolitana
based on our own records.
Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.