Tenellia gymnota

Tenellia gymnota (Couthouy, 1838)

Tenellia gymnota by Klas Malmberg
Class: Gastropoda Cuvier, 1797
Subclass: Heterobranchia J.E. Gray, 1840
Clade: Euthyneura Spengel, 1881
Clade: Nudipleura Wägele & Willan, 2000
Order: Nudibranchia Cuvier, 1817
Suborder: Dexiarchia Schrödl, Wägele & Willan, 2001
Infraorder: Cladobranchia Willan & Morton, 1984
Parvorder: Aeolidida Odhner, 1934
Superfamily: Fionoidea Gray, 1857
Family: Fionidae Gray, 1857
Genus: Tenellia A. Costa, 1866
Species: Tenellia gymnota (Couthouy, 1838)

Taxonomic note: The phylogenetic analyses performed by Cella et al. (2016) revealed that the traditional Tergipedidae family is polyphyletic and belongs to a larger monophyletic clade including members of the traditional families Eubranchidae, Fionidae and Calmidae; this was an unexpected result, since the validity of these taxa and their distinctness from the Tergipedidae was never questioned before. They proposed to join the families Tergipedidae, Eubranchidae, Calmidae and Fionidae under the name of Fionidae. Within Fionidae, obtained results demonstrated the need of developing a new classification as previous classifications (for instance, separating Catriona, Cuthona and Trinchesia as distinct taxa) were inconsistent with the resulting phylogeny. Analyses also recover a clade (Tenellia) that includes all members of the genera Tenellia, Trinchesia, Phestilla, Catriona and the majority of described and undescribed Cuthona species. New genera Rubramoena, Abronica and Tergiposacca are proposed to group other species. This molecular study also suggests that Fionidae is rich in cryptic species complexes, difficult to separate by traditional taxonomic characters, and previously undetected species diversity.


  • Aeolis bellula Lovén, 1846
  • Catriona aurantia (Alder & Hancock, 1842)
  • Catriona gymnota (Couthouy, 1838)
  • Cuthona gymnota (Couthouy, 1838)
  • Trinchesia gymnota (Couthouy, 1838)
  • Cratena gymnota (Couthouy, 1838)
  • Eolis aurantia Alder & Hancock, 1842
  • Eolis aurantiaca Alder & Hancock, 1851
  • Eolis gymnota Couthouy, 1838
  • Eolis sanguifera Dalyell, 1853 
  • Montagua gouldi Verrill, 1874




  • Gymnota. From the Ancient Greek term “gymnós”, meaning naked + “noton”, back.


Known georeferenced records of the species: Tenellia gymnota (z-200).
: GROC 2010-2011 : VIMAR
: Enric Madrenas : Manuel Ballesteros.
: João Pedro Silva : M@re Nostrum
: Bernard Picton : Other sources
: GBIF.ORG : Marine Regions

References for the species: Tenellia gymnota

    Cantabria: Ortea (1977c), Fernández-Ovies (1981, as Trinchesia aurantia). Galicia: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984, both as Cuthona gymnota). Portugal: García-Gómez et al. (1991). Andalucía (Atl.): Cervera and García (1986). Gibraltar: García-Gómez (1987).

    General: Behrens, 1980:84[P]; Cattaneo-Vietti, Chemello, & Giannuzzi-Savelli, 1990:183[P]; Picton & Morrow, 1994:108[P]; Schmekel & Portmann, 1982:259[P] as Catriona gymnota; Brown, 1980:244; Brown & Picton, 1979:28; Dekker, 1989:104; Hayward, Wigham, & Yonow, 1990:728; Swennen, 1987:47; Thompson, 1988:274; Thompson & Brown, 1984:123[P] as Cuthona gymnota

    Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.


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        Eastern Mediterranean:0.0 Stars
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This chart displays the observation probability for Tenellia gymnota
based on our own records.

More pictures


Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes et al. (2012-2017) "Tenellia gymnota" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 13/10/2014, Accessed: 23/04/2017 at (http://opistobranquis.info/en/xnh1O)

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