Phylliroe lichtensteinii Eschscholtz, 1825
Phylliroe lichtensteinii 3-01-2017 by Linda IanelloTaxonomy
Class: Gastropoda Cuvier, 1797
Subclass: Heterobranchia J.E. Gray, 1840
Clade: Euthyneura Spengel, 1881
Superorder: Nudipleura Wägele & Willan, 2000
Order: Nudibranchia Cuvier, 1817
Suborder: Dexiarchia Schrödl, Wägele & Willan, 2001
Infraorder: Cladobranchia Willan and Morton, 1984
Parvorder: Dendronotida Odhner, 1934
Superfamily: Tritonioidea Lamarck, 1809
Family: Phylliroidae Menke, 1830
Genus: Phylliroe Péron & Lesueur, 1810
Species: Phylliroe lichtensteinii Eschscholtz, 1825
- Phylliroe amboinensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1832
- Phylliroe atlantica Bergh, 1871
- Phylliroe lichtensteini Eschscholtz, 1825
- Phylliroe rubra Quoy & Gaimard, 1832
- Phylliroe pelagica H. Adams & A. Adams, 1858
- Phylliroe roseum D’Orbigny, 1836
Fish-like, flattened body, up to about 55 mm in length, without and completely transparent. The tail is short, less than 16% of the body length. The is reduced to a gland not disrupting the body outline. The , before the relatively small , is directed downwards, with a terminal . The is located on the right side in the centre of the body. The digestive gland and other are visible through the skin by transparency. The digestive gland has no in the middle, which is characteristic of . Literature is pretty confuse with the species of Phylliroe, species determination traits range from the presence of a restriction in the digestive gland to the number of gonads, and then from the number of gonads: P.bucephala is said to have 2 gonads, while P.lichtensteinii is said to have from 3 to 5, but the fact is these beautiful species have been neglected in many studies and identification is not clear.
This is The juveniles have been reported to parasitise the medusae of the cnidarian Zanclea, attaching to the inside of the bell, on which they feed and remain until adulthood. In adulthood its diet is no longer restricted to Zanclea, although observations of feeding behaviour are sparse. Phylliroe has been seen approaching a swarm of the larvacean Oikopleura albicans from below, grabbing a specimen with its paired denticulate jaws and swallowing it in half a minute. Adults have also been observed to prey on the medusa Aequorea. This is a pelagic species that is highly bioluminescent and emits flashes of light when disturbed. Despite it seems to prefer the upper water layers, vertical distribution for this species suggests that it lives at a depth of about 60 meters (Fernández-Álamo, 1997) and, at night, participates in a vertical migration towards the surface. It does not like light, so when it is discovered by a diver, begins to swim towards deep water (L.Ianello, pers.comm.).
- Phylliroe, from Greek “phyllon”, leaf + “roe”, water current, or water flow.
- Lichtensteinii, honors Martin Heinrich Lichtenstein, German physician, explorer and naturalist who, in 1844, published descriptions of animals collected around Australia. He worked at the Zoological Institute in Berlin.
This is known from the warm waters of and Oceans, also in the Mediterranean.
|: OBIS||: OPK|
|: GROC 2010-2011||: VIMAR|
|: Enric Madrenas||: Manuel Ballesteros.|
|: João Pedro Silva||: M@re Nostrum|
|: Bernard Picton||: Other sources|
|: GBIF.ORG||: Marine Regions|
This chart displays the observation probability for Phylliroe lichtensteinii
based on our own records.
Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.