Felimida binza (Ev. Marcus & Er. Marcus, 1963)
Felimida binza by Enric MadrenasTaxonomy
Class: Gastropoda Cuvier, 1797
Subclass: Heterobranchia J.E. Gray, 1840
Clade: Euthyneura Spengel, 1881
Clade: Nudipleura Wägele & Willan, 2000
Order: Nudibranchia Cuvier, 1817
Suborder: Euctenidiacea Tardy, 1970
Infraorder: Doridacea Thiele, 1931
Superfamily: Doridoidea Rafinesque, 1815
Family: Chromodorididae Bergh, 1891
Genus: Felimida Ev. Marcus 1971
Species: Felimida binza (Ev. Marcus & Er. Marcus, 1963)
Taxonomic note: The European Atlantic and Mediterranean species of the genus Chromodoris and Hypselodoris have been reconsidered. After molecular analysis of the Chromodorididae performed by Johnson & Gosliner (2012, Traditional taxonomic groupings mask evolutionary history: A molecular phylogeny and new classification of the chromodorid nudibranchs. PLoS ONE 7(4): 33479) the Hypselodoris species have been included in the genus Felimare Ev. Marcus & Er. Marcus, 1967 and the Chromodoris species have been included in the genus Felimida Ev. Marcus, 1971.
This species was known as Felimida britoi. Its status has been discussed by some authors, like Gosliner (1990), who considered it a synonym of the Caribbean species F. clenchi. Ortea et al. (1994) reviewed the chromodorididae species of the group with a similar color to clenchi (F. clenchi, F. neona, F. binza, F. britoi) and concluded that they were all different species. Later, Valdés (2000) suggested that F. binza and F. britoi probably are the same species, something that seems confirmed after the paper by Padula et al. (2016) with the results of molecular analysis. Both WoRMS and CLEMAM still consider F. britoi as valid species.
- Chromodoris britoi Ortea & Pérez, 1983 (original)
- Felimida britoi (Ortea & Pérez, 1983)
The body background color of this spectacular chromodoridid species can be pink, blue or violet blue and the animal can reach a size of about 20 mm in length. It is easily distinguished from other species of the same genus by the golden dorsal longitudinal bands: there are three bands, the central one can be somewhat paler, even white, with the outer edge just delineated in golden yellow. The two sidebands usually have a somewhat irregular path, can even be fragmented and they could connect to the center line in its medium zone. The sidebands are joined together on the back, and ahead of the rhinophores on the front side, also connecting with the central band. This central line forks on the rear side, completely surrounding the base of the gill sheath. The mantle margin is quite wide, coloured yellow and there is a broad whitish band inside. There may also be deep purple spots near the edge of the mantle and along its full contour. The design of the yellow stripes on the back may vary slightly from one animal to another. On the back there are very small, semitransparent, spaced conical tubercles with a rounded apex, that could be of different sizes. The rhinophores are of the same color of the body, with the back side of the rachis coloured in a lighter shade in some specimens, and have 16-20 lamellae; the rhinophoric sheath is slightly raised and its upper edge is smooth. The gill consists of about 10 semitransparent unipinnate gill leaves, with the rachis coloured purple or bluish. When the animal moves the gill leaves remain upright and tight together. The anal papilla is white and is located right in the center of the gill crown. The foot is pink but the darker viscera could be seen in its rear half by transparency, its front part is widened and its anterior lip is split. The mouth has a pair of finger-like palps. A short tail slightly protrudes from the mantle behind the foot, and has a longitudinal dorsal yellow band.
This species is relatively common in the western Mediterranean shores in scyaphyllic rocky substrates with sponges and under stones. Presents defensive glands (MDF’s) located in the white band around the mantle, containing secondary metabolites of diterpenoid type, possibly obtained from the sponges this species feeds on (Àvila, 1993). The spawn consists of a semitransparent ribbon wound in an spiral of two turns and a half and about 20 mm in diameter; the ribbon is about 2 mm high and contains white eggs arranged in lines forming two layers, having 9-10 eggs in each line.
- Binza. The etymology of the specific name is unknown. The Marcuses are known by usually not giving explanations about the names of the species they described.
After the original description of this species in the waters of the Canary Islands (Ortea & Pérez, 1983), this species has been observed in Madeira, the Azores and the Iberian Peninsula, were it is reported in the Basque coast, Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean coast (Cervera et al. 2004). It seems to be common in the Gulf of Naples and Sicily (Cattaneo-Vietti et al. 1990). It has also been cited in the Balearic Islands (Darder, 2011). In the Catalan coast it has been often cited in many locations of the Costa Brava like Es Caials, Cadaqués, L’Escala, Tossa de Mar, Cala Llevadó and Blanes.
|: OBIS||: OPK|
|: GROC 2010-2011||: VIMAR|
|: Enric Madrenas||: Manuel Ballesteros.|
|: João Pedro Silva||: M@re Nostrum|
|: Bernard Picton||: Other sources|
|: GBIF.ORG||: Marine Regions|
This chart displays the observation probability for Felimida binza
based on our own records.
Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.