Caloria elegans

Caloria elegans (Alder & Hancock, 1845)

Caloria elegans by Enric Madrenas

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Cladobranchia  

 

Superfamily

Aeolidioidea  

 

Family

Facelinidae  

 

Genus

Caloria  

 

Species

Caloria elegans  (Alder & Hancock, 1845)

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 139906).
Synonyms

  • Caloria maculata Trinchese, 1888
  • Eolis elegans Alder & Hancock, 1845 (original)

Description
The animals of this species have a very stylized translucent whitish body. The propodial tentacles are thin, translucent and iridescent-white on the leading edge. Oral tentacles are relatively long and of the same color of the propodials. The rhinophores are smooth, finely spotted in cream color and also iridescent-white coloured on the leading edge. In certain cases there are small papillae in certain specimens’ rhinophores. The eyes are clearly visible at the base of the rhinophores. The cerata 7-8 groups are tightly layed on the dorsum almost without gaps, so the back seems to have an homogeneous cover. The digestive gland extends inside the cerata, coloring them usually in yellow or cream tones, but some specimens have colorless cerata. However, all cerata have a very dark brown or black spot near the tip. The apex of the cerata is semitransparent, so with the aid of a binocular microscope it is possible to observe the hepatic duct and the apical cnidosac. Longer cerata are the most internal of each group, are curved and intersect with the cerata from the opposite side. It is not uncommon to observe malformations in some animals, such as bifurcated or trifurcated propodials tentacles and forked cerata near the apex. The foot is semitransparent and the tail is narrow with a middle-dorsal whitish line.

Biology
The animals of this species are very active, and extend their cerata resembling to an anemone when disturbed. C.elegans is usually located in rocky walls with algae and hydrarians abundance (Eudendrium, Obelia, Aglaophenia, Tubularia, Campanularia, Halecium, Plumularia) than it can feed on. Schmekel cites this species feeding on Perigonimus (now the genus Bougainvillia, athecate hydrozoan). Very little is known of the biology of this species.

Etymology

  • Caloria, in honor to the professor Luigi Calori (1807-1896), President of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Bologna (Italy).
  • Elegans = “elegant” in Latin.

Distribution
It is a widespread species in both European Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. It has also been recorded in the Canary Islands, Madeira and the Açores. In the Iberian Peninsula it has been observed in the Portuguese coast and all the Mediterranean coasts, also in Balearic islands. In Catalonia it appears sporadically in many different localities of the Costa Brava.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Caloria elegans
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

References for the species: Caloria elegans

    Portugal: Calado and Urgorri (1999), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). Gibraltar: García-Gómez (1983, 2002), García-Gómez et al. (1989). Andalucía (Med.): Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). Levante: Fez (1974, as C. maculata), Templado (1982b, 1983, as C. maculata), Templado (1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987), Templado et al. (2002). Catalunya: Ros (1975, 1978b), Ros & Altimira (1977), Ballesteros (1980, 1985), Altimira et al. (1981), Pereira & Ballesteros (1982), Huelin & Ros (1984), M@re Nostrum [Illa Mateua (L´Escala) 6/1999 y 4/2006, Aiguafreda 4/2000, Cala Llevadó 5/1997]. Todas las citas como C. maculata excepto Ballesteros (1985) y M@re Nostrum. Baleares: Ballesteros (1981a, as C. maculata), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Dekker (1986). Canarias: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Madeira: Moro et al. (1995), Wirtz (1998, 1999). Azores: Moro et al. (1995), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003).

    General: Ballesteros, 1985:33; Brown, 1981:335; Brown & Picton, 1979:21; Cattaneo-Vietti, Chemello, & Giannuzzi-Savelli, 1990:207[P]; Picton, 1979:125; Picton & Morrow, 1994:126[P]; Riedl, 1983:327; Schmekel & Portmann, 1982:214[P]; Thompson, 1988:322; Thompson & Brown, 1984:153[P]

    Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007 & 2016, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:2 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:0 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:0 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Caloria elegans based on our own records.

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Bibliography

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Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes (2012-2019) "Caloria elegans" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 17/05/2012, Accessed: 20/08/2019 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/mJ0O9)

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