Facelina dubia

Facelina dubia (Pruvot-Fol, 1948)

Facelina dubia 19 mm @ Šibenik (Croatia) by Pero Ugarković

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Cladobranchia  

 

Superfamily

Aeolidioidea  

 

Family

Facelinidae  

 

Genus

Facelina  

 

Species

Facelina dubia  Pruvot-Fol, 1948

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 139910).
Description
This species can reach a remarkable size, it has been cited up to 38 mm in length. The body is translucent and suggests much of the internal organs that are coloured creamy white. On the head there is an orange stain, corresponding to the buccal bulb, that can be seen by transparency as well as the esophagus that can be observed as a dark red lace curved to the left between the base of the rhinophores and slightly behind them. There are small white spots scattered throughout the animal’s back and head. Oral tentacles are thin and elongated, they are also translucent with white spots, the same with the rhinophores, that lack any lamellae. The eyes can be seen on the inner posterior basal region of the rhinophores. The cerata are very long and thin and are arranged in seven groups on each side of the body. The first 4 groups are composed of 2 or more rows of cerata and the first group is located far ahead, levelled up with the rhinophores. The cerata length of each row increases from the outermost one (which is shorter) to the innermost (which is longer). The cerata are also semitransparent, they have superficial white stains and the digestive diverticulum can be clearly seen inside, as a fine greenish lace. The apex of the cerata are white. The genital opening, very apparent and funnel-shaped, is located below the last two rows of the first group of cerata on the right, while the anus is located slightly behind, below the second group of cerata on the right. The propodial tentacles in front of the foot are triangular.

Biology
F. dubia feeds on athecate hydroids of the genus Podocoryne and Tubularia over which it also spawns. This is a very active species that, when disturbed extends all cerata trying to resemble an actiniarian with a clearly defensive purpose. In European Atlantic coasts it is a common finding on submerged ropes where hydrozoans grow, also in soft substrates with traces of molluscs shells that are colonized by hydroids. Mediterranean specimens rarely exceed 20 mm in length. The spawn is a coiled cord with white eggs of about 100 microns.

Etymology

  • Facelina, from Latin, means “lined face”.
  • Dubia, del Latin, means “doubtful”.

Distribution
This is an European species that inhabits the Atlantic waters from Norway to the Bay of Biscay. In the Mediterranean it has been cited in the Gulf of Naples and the Catalan coast, also in Croatia (Pero Ugarković‎, pers.comm.). Common in the beachfront of Barceloneta (Barcelona), on a gravel bottom 10-15 m deep with abundant bivalve shell remains and other anthropogenic debris.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Facelina dubia
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

References for the species: Facelina dubia

    Catalunya: Ballesteros, Ortea, Vallve, & Martinez, 1993:123.

    General: Nordsieck, 1972:79 as Acanthopsole dubia; Just & Edmunds, 1985:132[P]; Picton & Brown, 1981:265; Picton & Morrow, 1994:124[P]; Pruvot-Fol, 1954b:391; Schonenberger & Schonenberger, 1961:293; Thompson, 1988:320; Thompson & Brown, 1984:151[P] as Facelina dubia

    Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007 & 2016, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:1 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Facelina dubia based on our own records.

More pictures

Bibliography

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    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2016. Actualización del catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira 6(2016): 1-28.
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    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes (2012-2019) "Facelina dubia" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 20/11/2012, Accessed: 13/12/2019 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/WKVLd)

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