Pruvotfolia pselliotes

Pruvotfolia pselliotes (Labbé, 1923)

Pruvotfolia pselliotes @ Split (Croatia) 0.5m by Jakov Prkić

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Cladobranchia  

 

Superfamily

Aeolidioidea  

 

Family

Facelinidae  

 

Genus

Pruvotfolia  

 

Species

Pruvotfolia pselliotes  (Labbé, 1923)

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 139919).
Synonyms

  • Acanthopsole pselliotes Labbé, 1923
  • Facelina faurei Barnard, 1927
  • Rolandia hispanica Pruvot-Fol, 1951
  • Facelina pselliotes (Labbé, 1923)
  • Phidiana pselliotes (Labbé, 1923)

Description
This aeolidacean is relatively large, with a maximum recorded length of 35mm at rest and up to 50mm extended. The body is translucent, and may be of any shade from white to yellowish to brown but it is dotted with multiple opaque white dots, more or less dense depending on the specimens. The oral palps are long and thin, and the animal moves them constantly when active, while keeping them raised forming an “S” when at rest. The rhinophores are long, cylindrical, tappered, and have about thirty lamellae. The eyes are in dorsal position, right behind the rhinophores. It has a large quantity of cerata arranged in oblique rows, which are divided into seven groups laid in a triangular arrangement along the back, but only the first group can be discerned from the rest, since they are separated by the pericardial area. The number of cerata per group gradually decreases towards the tail: it has approximately 60 cerata in the first group, 30 in the second, and 15, 8, 4, 2 and 1 respectively. The cerata located towards the center of the dorsum are very long (up to 20mm) and are progressively reduced in length as their position moves away to the sides, where they can measure only 1mm. The cerata contain an expansion of the brown digestive gland, and at the tip they have a white cnidosac. The oral palps, the rhinophores and the cerata have two opaque brown rings, with wavy margins, on a lighter and translucent background. The anterior part of the foot has two relatively long tentacles that bend backwards when the animal is in motion. The back of the foot forms a relatively long tail behind the last group of cerata. The genital orifice is behind the first group of cerata on the right side of the body, and is characterized by having a genital leaf, fleshy and non-retractable and a group of special appendages, very small and difficult to observe “de visu”, arranged in two rows that form an angle and that play an active role during copulation.

Biology
Lives on rocky bottoms, from the intertidal, even in areas beaten by the swell, down to about 25 meters deep. It feeds voraciously from hydrarians of the genera: Obelia, Kirchenpaueria, Tubularia or Sertularia. Cases of cannibalism have been documented if their food is scarce. The copulation is characteristic of this species, two individuals approach showing their right side to each other, then the fleshy genital leaf and the two papillae adjacent to the genital opening extend between 20 and 30mm. perpendicular to the body, and maintain contact with the couple while the genital leaves form a kind of channel to guide the penis to the genital opening. During the intercourse, the cerata of both animals stretch, contract and move in all directions in a process that lasts about 15 minutes. The spawn takes place 48 hours later in the form of a thin regular ribbon, wound in a spiral of about 20 or 30mm in diameter containing between 5,000 and 10,000 eggs. When they hatch, the eggs turn into pelagic larvae or “veliger”. Like many other opisthobranchs it is basically nocturnal, so during the day it is usually found under stones or in deep crevices. Escapes actively from light. When the animal is calmed the cerata are somewhat curved towards the center of the body, but if it is disturbed, they become straightened like a hedgehog, while moving them actively as a defense mechanism. If the threat is important, the animal can autotomize the cerata to confuse the predators.

Etymology

  • Pruvotfolia. In honor of Dr. Alice Pruvot-Fol (1873–1972), a French opisthobranch malacologist, author of many new species, mostly described on the basis of preserved animals. She continued working and naming new species until late in her life, in 1962, when she was 89 years old, she named Phyllidia pulitzeri.
  • Pselliotes. From Greek “pséllion”, bracelet, ring. Probably because of the brown rings in palps and rhinophores.

Distribution
From Cornwall in the south of England to the Atlantic shores of Morocco and Canary Islands (Ortea & Urgorri, 1981), and in the Mediterranean from Gibraltar to Yassiada (Turkey), with reports from Malta and Croatia. Frequent species in some rocky bottoms of the basin of Arcachon (France). Ortea & Urgorri (1981) mentioned it for the first time in Iberian waters in Oviñana (Asturias) and in Pedras Negras (Pontevedra, Galicia). It has been later mentioned in all the Iberian coasts: Portugal, Andalucia, Levante and Catalonia.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Pruvotfolia pselliotes
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

References for the species: Pruvotfolia pselliotes

    Galicia: Ortea (1977c), Ortea and Urgorri (1981b), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). Portugal: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). Andalucía (Atl.): Cervera and García (1986). Gibraltar: García-Gómez (1983, 2002). Andalucía (Med.): Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a). Levante: Templado et al. (2002). Catalunya: Pruvot-Fol (1954, citada como Rolandia hispanica). Canarias: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001).

    General: Gosliner, 1987b:121[P]; Ortea & Urgorri, 1981a:150; Tardy, 1969:327

    Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007 & 2016, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:2 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Pruvotfolia pselliotes based on our own records.

More pictures

Bibliography

    Ballesteros, M. 1980. Contribución al conocimientos de los Sacoglosos y Nudibranquios (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Estudio anatómico, sistemático y faunístico de las especies del mediterráneo español. Tesis Doctoral. Universitat de Barcelona.
    Ballesteros, M. 2007. Lista actualizada de los opistobranquios (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira. 2: 163–188.
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2019. OPK - Opistobranquis. (https://opistobranquis.info/).
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2016. Actualización del catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira 6(2016): 1-28.
    Bielecki, S., G. Cavignaux, J. M. Crouzet, and S. Grall. 2011. Des limaces de rêve.
    Calado, G., M. Malaquias, C. Gavaia, J. L. Cervera, C. Megina, B. Dayrat, Y. Camacho, M. Pola, and C. Grance. 2003. New data on opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the southwestern coast of Portugal. Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía 19 (1-4): 199-204.
    Calado, G., V. Urgorri, R. Gaspar, and F. J. Cristobo. 1999. Catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios bentónicos de las costas de Setúbal-Espichel (Portugal). Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía) 9: 285-294.
    Carmona, L., M. Pola, T. M. Gosliner, and J. L. Cervera. 2015. Protaeolidiella atra Baba, 1955 versus Pleurolidia juliae Burn, 1966: One or two species? Helgol Mar Res 69:137-145.
    Carmona, L., M. Pola, T. M. Gosliner, and J. L. Cervera. 2013. A tale that morphology fails to tell: A molecular phylogeny of Aeolidiidae (Aeolidida, Nudibranchia, Gastropoda). PLoS ONE 8(5): e63000. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063000.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., R. Chemello, and R. Giannuzzi-Savelli. 1990. Atlante dei nudibranchi del Mediterraneo. La Conchiglia, Rome 264 pp, 14 pls. (104 clr. ill), line drawings.
    Cervera, J. L., and J. C. García-Gómez. 1986. Moluscos opistobranquios del litoral occidental andaluz: nuevas aportaciones faunísticas. Iberus 6 (2): 201-207.
    Cervera, J. L., G. Calado, C. Gavaia, M. A. E. Malaquías, J. Templado, M. Ballesteros, J. C. García-Gómez, and C. Megina. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
    Cervera, J. L., J. Templado, J. C. García-Gómez, M. Ballesteros, J. Ortea, F. J. García, J. Ros, and A. A. Luque. 1988. Catálogo actualizado y comentado de los Opistobranquios (Mollusca, Gastropoda) de la Península Ibérica, Baleares y Canarias, con algunas referencias a Ceuta y la isla de Alborán. Iberus, supl. 1: 1-84.
    Clergier, M. P., and J. Tardy. 1978. Etude histologique de la lame peniale de Pruvotfolia pselliotes (Labbe) 1923 (Mollusque Gasteropode Nudibranche). Haliotis (Publie par la Societe Francaise de Malacologie) 9(1):89.
    de Montaudouin, X., and P.-G. Sauriau. 2000. Contribution to a synopsis of marine species  richness in the Perthuis Charentais Sea with new insights in soft-bottom macrofauna of the Marennes- Oléron Bay. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 41(2):181-222.
    Debelius, H., and R. H. Kuiter. 2007. Nudibranchs of the world. IKAN- Unterwasserarchiv, Frankfurt.
    Edmunds, M. 2015. Opisthobranchiate Mollusca from Ghana, Aeolidiidae, with consideration of several caribbean species. Journal of Conchology Vol. 42(2): 125-161.
    Edmunds, M. 1977. Larval development, oceanic currents, and origins of the Opisthobranch fauna of Ghana. Journal of Molluscan studies 43:301-308.
    Edmunds, M. 1991. Does warning coloration occur in nudibranchs. Malacologia 32(2):241-255.
    Flanders Marine Institute. 2018. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase: Territorial Seas. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase. (http://www.marineregions.org/).
    Garcia, F. J., and H. Bertsch. 2009. Diversity and distribution of the Gastropoda Opisthobranchia from the Atlantic Ocean: A global biogeographic approach. Scientia Marina. 73: 153–160.
    García-Gómez, J. C. 1987. Adiciones a la fauna de Opistobranquios del Estrecho de Gibraltar (sur de España), I. Iberus 7 (2): 197-209.
    García-Gómez, J. C. 1983. Moluscos Opistobranquios del Estrecho de Gibraltar y Bahía de Algeciras. Iberus 3: 41-46.
    García-Gómez, J. C. 2002. Paradigmas de una fauna insólita; Los moluscos opistobranquios del estrecho de Gibraltar (Serie Ciencias) 20: 397 pp. Instituto de Estudios Gibraltareños. Algeciras, Cádiz, Spain.
    García-Gómez, J. C., J. L. Cervera, F. J. García, J. A. Ortea, S. F. García-Martin, A. Medina, and L. P. Burnay. 1991. Resultados de la campaña internacional de biología marina “Algarve 88”: moluscos opistobranquios. Bollettino Malacologico 27 (5-9): 125-138.
    Gosliner, T. M. 1987. Nudibranchs of Southern Africa; A guide to Opisthobranchs Molluscs of Southern Africa. Sea Challengers and Jeff Hamann. Monterey, California, EEUU: 136 pp.
    Labbé, A. 1923. Description sommaire de cinq nouvelles especes d’Eolidiens trouvees a la station du Croisic. Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences Naturelles de l’Ouest de la France, Proces Verbaux, series 4, 3:7-10.
    Long, S. J. 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
    Malaquias, M. A. E., and P. M. Morenito. 2000. The Opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Coastal Lagoon “Ria Formosa” in Southern Portugal. Bollettino Malacologico 36 (5-8): 117-124.
    McDonald, G. 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia. 2nd Online Edition, Annotated. 1072 pp  Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz. (http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8115h0wz).
    Menéndez, J. L., and J. Oliveros. 2004. Pruvotfolia pselliotes accessed through: AsturNatura on 2015-02-05. (http://www.asturnatura.com/especie/pruvotfolia-pselliotes.html).
    Mifsud, C., and C. Cachia. 2011. New additions and corrections, with annotations, to the check-list of the marine mollusca of the Maltese islands. Triton 23: 10-18.
    Moro, L., J. Ortea, J. J. Bacallado, A. Valdés, and J. M. Pérez Sánchez. 1995. Nuevos Aeolidáceos (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) para la fauna de Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 7 (2, 3 and 4): 63-75.
    Moro, L., J. L. Martín Esquivel, M. J. Garrido Sanahuja, and I. Izquierdo Zamora. 2003. Lista de especies marinas de Canarias (algas, hongos, plantas y animales). Consejería de Política Territorial y Medio Ambiente del Gobierno de Canarias.
    Naya Garmendia, L. M. 2016. Nudibranquios de la Costa Vasca: el pequeño Cantábrico multicolor. Aquarium de Donostia-San Sebastián.
    Ortea, J. 1977a. Moluscos marinos gasterópodos y bivalvos del litoral asturiano entre Ribadesella y Ribadeo, con especial atención a la subclase de los opistobranquios. Tesis Doctoral. Universidad de Oviedo.
    Ortea, J., and L. Moro. 1997. Redescripción y nueva posición sistemática de Phidiana longicirrha Eliot, 1906 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Aeolidacea). Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 9 (2, 3 and 4): 107-118.
    Ortea, J. A., and V. Urgorri. 1981. Runcina ferruginea Kress 1977, et Pruvotfolia pselliotes (Labbe, 1923) dans les eaux Iberiques. Vie et Milieu 31(2):149-151.
    Ortea, J., L. Moro, and M. Caballer. 2002. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Pruvotfolia Tardy, 1969 de las islas de Cabo Verde (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Facelinidae). Vieraea, 30: 199-205.
    Ortea, J. A., A. Quero, G. Rodriguez, and A. Valdés. 1993. Presencia de Piseinotecus gaditanus (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) en las Islas de Cabo Verde. Courier Forschungisinstitut Senckenberg 159:221-224.
    Ortea, J. A., L. Moro, J. J. Bacallado, and R. Herrera. 2001. Catálogo actualizado de los Moluscos Opistobranquios de las Islas Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 12 (3-4): 105-136.
    Ozturk, B., A. Dogan, B. Bitlis-Bakir, and A. Salman. 2014. Marine Molluscs of the Turkish Coasts: An Updated Checklist. Tübitak, Turkish Journal of Zoology 38.
    Poddubetskaia, M. 2002. NEMBRO. (http://www.nembro.info).
    Prkić, J., A. Petani, Ð. Iglić, and L. Lanča. 2018. Stražnjoškržnjaci Jadranskoga Mora: Slikovni Atlas i Popis Hrvatskih Vrsta / Opisthobranchs of the Adriatic Sea: Photographic Atlas and List of Croatian Species. Ronilaćki Klub Sveti Roko, Bibinje.
    Pruvot-Fol, A. 1954. Mollusques opisthobranches. Faune de France, 58. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
    Rolán, E. 2005. Malacological Fauna From The Cape Verde Archipelago. Part 1, Polyplacophora and Gastropoda. ConchBooks, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Ros, J. 1981. Desarrollo y estrategias binómicas en los opistobranquios. Oecologia aquatica 5: 147-183.
    Rudman, W. B. 1980. Aeolid opisthobranch molluscs (Glaucidae) from the Indian Ocean and the south-west Pacific. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 68: 139-172.
    Rudman W.B. et al. 1998. Pruvotfolia pselliotes accessed through: Sea Slug Forum on 2014-12-14. (http://seaslugforum.net/showall/pruvpsel).
    Sabelli, B., R. Gianuzzi-Savelli, and D. Bedulli. 1990. Catalogo annotato dei Molluschi marini del Mediterraneo. Libreria Naturalistica Bolognese. Bologna, Italy: 348 pp.

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Pontes, Miquel, Manuel Ballesteros, Enric Madrenas (2012-2019) "Pruvotfolia pselliotes" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 05/10/2013, Accessed: 18/06/2019 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/6ITYN)

In order to copy this cite or text fragments you must be a registered user.