Calmella cavolini

Calmella cavolini (Verany, 1846)

Calmella cavolini by Enric Madrenas

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Cladobranchia  

 

Superfamily

Fionoidea  

 

Family

Flabellinidae  

 

Genus

Calmella  

 

Species

Calmella cavolini  (Vérany, 1846)

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 139978).

Taxonomic note: The classification of the Flabellinidae had remained fairly stable until in 2017 a series of works appeared (Furfaro et al., 2017; Korshunova et al., 2017) that intended to clarify the status of the Flabellinidae family. The main objective of the paper by Furfaro et al. was to molecularly characterize the Mediterranean species while the paper by Korshunova et al. wanted to delve into the phylogenetic relationships between various members of the Flabellinidae family and the other families of aeolidaceans.
Both works were based on the combination of molecular and morphological techniques and, in fact, do not offer very different results, but differ on the size and origin of the studied samples and, mainly, on the interpretation of the results. After the appearance of the paper by Furfaro et al., many Mediterranean species of the genera Calmella, Flabellina and Piseinotecus were grouped under the common genusFlabellina, but had certain problems with some species that did not fit well with the proposed classification (e.g,Flabellina babai) , discovered that the Mediterranean and Atlantic populations ofFlabellina ischitana correspond to two different cryptic species, and noted the problems of the cryptic group formed by Calmella cavolini / Flabellina confusa / Piseinotecus gaditanus, indicating the need for further studies to clarify their status.
Curiously, these studies were being carried out practically in parallel by the group of Korshunova et al. but on a much wider sample of species that included specimens from the Arctic, North Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. This second paper confirms the polyphily of the family Flabellinidae, but the interpretation of these results becomes a real revolution for the taxonomy of the aeolidaceans, especially for the family Flabellinidae.
Both papers show that there are two well differentiated clades (groups) in the Flabellinidae: species like Coryphella pedata and similars, with cerata that come directly from the back, and species like Flabellina affinis and similars, with cerata of each group coming from a stalk or pod. Although Furfaro et al. consider the species of both clades belonging to the genusFlabellina within the family Flabellinidae, Korshunova et al. distinguishes two families: Coryphellidae and Flabellinidae sensu stricto, also creating many different genera in these families to include the species they study. Its taxonomic proposal, curiously, solves the problems found by Furfaro et al.
In a way, both papers complement to each other, although in the paper by Korshunova et al. it is evident the lack of studies on tropical flabellinid species and those from southern America and Africa, so the subject has not been settled. The proposal to create new genera to collect small groups of species, instead of multispecific genera, seems to be the trend in some of the phylogenetic works of recent years. We hope to see new papers expanding the knowledge on the aeolidaceans soon. A detailed discussion of this exciting controversy can be found at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/flabellinidae/).

Synonyms

  • Aeolis digitata Costa A., 1866
  • Eolidia cavolini Vérany, 1846 (original)
  • Jojenia rubrobranchiata Aradas, 1847
  • Flabellina cavolini (Vérany, 1846)

Description
This is a small aeolidacean species that rarely exceeds 10 mm in length. Its small size, the coloration of its cerata and its morphology make it distinctive in the environment. The body is narrow, elongated and colored opaque white, sometimes with a slightly iridescent blue shade. The white oral tentacles and rhinophores are long and slender, of almost the same length; some specimens may have orange pigmented tips. The rhinophores are smooth throughout its length. On the back of the head and front of the rhinophores there can be seen two purplish spots, corresponding to the animal jaws, seen by transparency. There can be up to 7 groups of cerata on each side of the body. The cerata of each group come from the same dorsal stalk, that can be bifurcated or trifurcated, something characteristic of several species in the Flabellinidae family. The cerata are semitransparent and the orange or red colored digestive gland can be observed through the skin, the top being more pigmented than the rest. The apex of the cerata is white, and the cnidosac could be observed inside. The foot is semitransparent and has a pair of short propodial palps in its anterior zone. The tail is long and very narrow.

Biology
This species is fairly common all year long in shallow rocky walls with abundance of sciaphilic algae, sponges and hydroids. It is usually found associated to hydrarians as Halecium pusillum and Eudendrium racemosum, from which it may feed upon. Is also located on the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata. The spawn has the form of a narrow spiral ribbon of pinkish eggs about 100 microns in diameter.

Etymology

  • Calmella. In 1910 Eliot creates the genus Calmella from the genus name Calma, of which this word is diminutive. According to the Celtic historian Peter Berresford Ellis, Calma is one of the sons of Carmán, a Greek warrior goddess who devastated Ireland with her three ferocious sons: Calma (Brave), Dubh (Black) and Olc (Evil). Eventually they were defeated by the Tuatha Dé Danaan, after which Carmán died in an unpleasant way.
  • Cavolini. In honor of Filippo Cavolini (1756-1810), who was a rich merchant and one of the earliest marine zoologists. In 1785 and 1792 he published a few articles about polyps, fishes and crustaceans. He had built a special laboratory in his villa in Posillipo. In 1813 it was posthumously published “Abhandlungen über die Pflanzenthiere des Mittelmeeres”.

Distribution
So far this is a strictly Mediterranean species, found mainly in the western basin. Recent observations have cited it in Turkish waters. In the Iberian Peninsula has been observed in the Mediterranean coast of Andalusia, in the southeastern coast, in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. The Catalan locations where it has been cited are: the Cap de Creus and Es Caials (Cadaqués), L’Escala, Illes Medes (L’Estartit), Cala Aiguafreda (Begur), Palamos, Tossa de Mar, Cala Canyelles and Cala Santa Cristina (Lloret de Mar), Blanes, Badalona, the Barcelona harbor, Cubelles and in the beach of La Pineda (Salou).

Known georeferenced records of the species: Calmella cavolini
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

References for the species: Calmella cavolini

    Andalucía (Med.): Ballesteros et al. (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Levante: De Fez (1974), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987). Catalunya: Ros (1975,1978b), Ballesteros (1978, 1980, 1985, 1985), Altimira et al. (1981), Pereira & Ballesteros (1982), Huelin & Ros (1984), M@re Nostrum [Punta del Ferro (L'Escala) 4/2000, Illa Rodona (Llançà) 11/1998]. Baleares: Ballesteros (1981a, 1985), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Dekker (1986).

    General: Cattaneo-Vietti, Chemello, & Giannuzzi-Savelli, 1990:165[P]; Fez Sanchez, 1974:105; Nordsieck, 1972:74; Perrone, 1986a:33; Pruvot-Fol, 1948b:273; 1951:62; 1953b:51[P]; 1954b:415; Riedl, 1970:431; 1983:326; Schmekel, 1970:1434; Schmekel & Portmann, 1982:193[P]; Thompson, 1976a:[P]; Vayssiere, 1913a:295; Vicente, 1967:160

    Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007 & 2016, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:2 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:0 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Calmella cavolini based on our own records.

More pictures

Bibliography

    Altimira, C., M. F. Huelin, and J. Ros. 1981. Mol·luscs bentònics de les illes Medes (Girona). I. Sistemàtica. Butll. Inst. Cat. Hist. Nat. (Sec. Zool.), 47: 69-75.
    Aradas, A. 1847. Memorie di Zoologia Siciliana. Memoria III. Descrizione di alcuni molluschi nudi della Sicilia. Atti dell’Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali, (2)4: 107-122, pl. 1.
    Ballesteros, M. 1978. Contribución al conocimiento de la fauna bentónica de Cubellas. Publicaciones del Departamento de Zoología (Barcelona) 3: 11-23.
    Ballesteros, M. 1982. Nota preliminar sobre la fauna de nudibranquios de la isla de Ibiza. Actas II Simposio Ibérico de Estudios del Bentos Marino 3: 229-234.
    Ballesteros, M. 1984. Adiciones a la fauna de opistobranquios de Cubellas (Tarragona). Miscelánea Zoológica 8: 41-49.
    Ballesteros, M. 1980. Contribución al conocimientos de los Sacoglosos y Nudibranquios (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Estudio anatómico, sistemático y faunístico de las especies del mediterráneo español. Tesis Doctoral. Universitat de Barcelona.
    Ballesteros, M. 2007. Lista actualizada de los opistobranquios (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira. 2: 163–188.
    Ballesteros, M., C. Álvarez, and B. Mateo. 1986. Aproximación a la fauna de opistobranquios de la isla de Menorca. Publicaciones del Departamento de Zoología (Barcelona) 12: 93-106.
    Ballesteros, M., A. Barrajón, A. Luque, D. Moreno, P. Talavera, and J. Templado. 1986. Contribución al conocimiento de los Moluscos Gasterópodos marinos de Almería. Iberus, 6: 39-57.
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2019. OPK - Opistobranquis. (https://opistobranquis.info/).
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2016. Actualización del catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira 6(2016): 1-28.
    Ballesteros, M., M. Pontes, and E. Madrenas. 2015. Opisthobranch from Medes Islands (Marine Protected Area, Costa Brava, Catalonia, NE Spain): 40 years of study.
    Barletta, G., and G. Melone. 1976. Nudibranchi del Promontorio di Portofino (Genova) (Gastropoda Nudibranchia). Natura, Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali, Milano 67(3-4):203-236.
    Barletta, G., M. Mariani, and C. Perego. 1990. Considerazioni preliminari sugli opistobranchi viventi nella baia di Paraggi (Ge). Lavori della Societa Italiana di Malacologia 23:247-260.
    Bedulli, D., R. Cattaneo-Vietti, R. Chemello, F. Ghisotti, and F. Giovine. 1995. Gastropoda Opisthobranchia, Divasibranchia, Gymnomorpha, Fascicolo 15, pp. 1-23.  In: A. Minelli, A. Ruffo, & S. La Posta (Eds.). Checklist delle specie fauna italiana, Checklist delle specie della Fauna Italiana. Calderini, Bologna.
    Bielecki, S., G. Cavignaux, J. M. Crouzet, and S. Grall. 2011. Des limaces de rêve.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R. 1986. Alcune considerazioni sui molluschi opistobranchi del Mar Ligure. Lavori Societa Italiana di Malacologia 22:85-96.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and G. Barletta. 1984. Elenco preliminare dei molluschi opistobranchi viventi nel Mediterraneo (Sacoglossa, Pleurobranchomorpha, Acochlidiacea, Aplysiomorpha, Nudibranchia). Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 20(9-12):195-218.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and R. Chemello. 1987. Alcune considerazioni sui molluschi opistobranchi della Sicilia. Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 23(5-8):207-222.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and R. Chemello. 1991. The opisthobranch fauna of a Mediterranean lagoon (Stagnone di Marsala, western Sicily). Malacologia 32(2):291-299.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and T. E. Thompson. 1989. Mediterranean opisthobranch molluscs: a zoogeographic approach. Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 25(5-8):183-204.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., R. Chemello, and R. Giannuzzi-Savelli. 1990. Atlante dei nudibranchi del Mediterraneo. La Conchiglia, Rome 264 pp, 14 pls. (104 clr. ill), line drawings.
    Cervera, J. L., and J. C. García-Gómez. 1986. Moluscos opistobranquios del litoral occidental andaluz: nuevas aportaciones faunísticas. Iberus 6 (2): 201-207.
    Cervera, J. L., J. C. García-Gómez, and F. J. García. 1986. Una nueva especie de Piseinotecus Marcus, 1955 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) del litoral ibérico. Bollettino Malacologico 22 (9-12): 215-222.
    Cervera, J. L., G. Calado, C. Gavaia, M. A. E. Malaquías, J. Templado, M. Ballesteros, J. C. García-Gómez, and C. Megina. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
    Cervera, J. L., J. Templado, J. C. García-Gómez, M. Ballesteros, J. Ortea, F. J. García, J. Ros, and A. A. Luque. 1988. Catálogo actualizado y comentado de los Opistobranquios (Mollusca, Gastropoda) de la Península Ibérica, Baleares y Canarias, con algunas referencias a Ceuta y la isla de Alborán. Iberus, supl. 1: 1-84.
    De Fez, S. 1974. Ascoglosos y Nudibranquios de España y Portugal. CSIC. Valencia, Spain: 325 pp.
    Debelius, H., and R. H. Kuiter. 2007. Nudibranchs of the world. IKAN- Unterwasserarchiv, Frankfurt.
    Doneddu, M., B. Manunza, and E. Trainito. 1995. Opistobranchi del Nord Sardegna: censimento ed annotazioni. Biologia Marina Mediterranea II (2): 369-370.
    Edmunds, M. 1970. Opisthobranchiate Mollusca from Tanzania. II. Eolidacea (Cuthonidae, Piseinotecidae and Facelinidae). Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 39(1):15-57; tbls. 1-3; figs. 1-24.
    Edmunds, M. 1987. Color in opisthobranchs. Western Society of Malacologists Annual Report 19:24.
    Edmunds, M. 1987. Color in opisthobranchs. American Malacological Bulletin 5(2):185-196.
    Flanders Marine Institute. 2018. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase: Territorial Seas. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase. (http://www.marineregions.org/).
    Furfaro, G., D. Salvi, E. Mancini, and P. Mariottini. 2017. A multilocus view on Mediterranean aeolid nudibranchs (Mollusca): Systematics and cryptic diversity of Flabellinidae and Piseinotecidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 118: 13–22.
    Garcia, F. J., and H. Bertsch. 2009. Diversity and distribution of the Gastropoda Opisthobranchia from the Atlantic Ocean: A global biogeographic approach. Scientia Marina. 73: 153–160.
    Giribet, G., and A. Peñas. 1997. Fauna malacológica del litoral del Garraf (NE de la Península Ibérica). Iberus 15 (1): 41-93.
    Huelin, M. F., and J. Ros. 1984. Els mol·lucs marins de les illes Medes In: Els sistemes naturals de les Illes Medes. Arxius de la Secció de Ciéncies, J Ros et al (eds) 73: 457-500. IEC. Barcelona, Spain.
    Korshunova, T. A., A. V. Martynov, T. Bakken, J. Evertsen, K. Fletcher, I. W. Mundiata, H. Saito, K. Lundin, M. Schrödl, and B. Picton. 2017. Polyphyly of the traditional family Flabellinidae affects a major group of Nudibranchia: aeolidacean taxonomic reassessment with descriptions of several new families, genera, and species (Mollusca, Gastropoda). ZooKeys 717: 1-139.
    Korshunova, T. A., A. V. Martynov, T. Bakken, J. Evertsen, K. Fletcher, I. W. Mundiata, H. Saito, K. Lundin, M. Schrödl, and B. Picton. 2017. Corrigenda: Polyphyly of the traditional family Flabellinidae affects a major group of Nudibranchia: aeolidacean taxonomic reassessment with descriptions of several new families, genera, and species (Mollusca, Gastropoda). https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.717.21885. ZooKeys 725: 139–141.
    Long, S. J. 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
    McDonald, G. 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia. 2nd Online Edition, Annotated. 1072 pp  Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz. (http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8115h0wz).
    Nordsieck, F. 1972. Die europäischen Meeresschnecken : (Opisthobranchia mit Pyramidellidae, Rissoacea) : vom Eismeer bis Kapverdem, Mittelmeer und Schawarzes Meer. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.
    Ocaña Martín, A., L. Sánchez Tocino, S. López González, and F. Viciana Martín. 2000. Guía submarina de invertebrados no artrópodos. Comares, Granada.
    Ortea, J. A., A. Quero, G. Rodriguez, and A. Valdés. 1993. Presencia de Piseinotecus gaditanus (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) en las Islas de Cabo Verde. Courier Forschungisinstitut Senckenberg 159:221-224.
    Ortea, J., M. Caballer, and L. Moro. 2004. Dos aeolidaceos con ceratas rojos de la region macaronesica y el mar Caribe (Mollusca: Nudibranchia). Vieraea 32: 83-96.
    Ozturk, B., A. Dogan, B. Bitlis-Bakir, and A. Salman. 2014. Marine Molluscs of the Turkish Coasts: An Updated Checklist. Tübitak, Turkish Journal of Zoology 38.
    Pereira, F., and M. Ballesteros. 1982. Gasterópodos del litoral mediterranáo español. II. Tossa de Mar, Gerona. Actas I Simposio Ibérico Bentos Marino, 1: 223-235.
    Poddubetskaia, M. 2002. NEMBRO. (http://www.nembro.info).
    Prkić, J., A. Petani, Ð. Iglić, and L. Lanča. 2018. Stražnjoškržnjaci Jadranskoga Mora: Slikovni Atlas i Popis Hrvatskih Vrsta / Opisthobranchs of the Adriatic Sea: Photographic Atlas and List of Croatian Species. Ronilaćki Klub Sveti Roko, Bibinje.
    Pruvot-Fol, A. 1937. Etude des opisthobranches des côtes Nord de la Méditerranée provenant en majeure partie de Banyuls avec adjonction d’échantillon récoltés à Villefranche ainsi que dans quelques autres localités. Archives du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris (6) 14: 35-74.

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes (2012-2019) "Calmella cavolini" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 17/05/2012, Accessed: 22/07/2019 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/cF2bU)

In order to copy this cite or text fragments you must be a registered user.