Unassigned Cladobranchia

The parvorder Unassigned Cladobranchia is a group or clade that contains all those Cladobranchia nudibranch families that molecular phylogeny can not yet clarify the relationship among them, as in Charcotiidae, Dironidae, Goniaeolididae, Heroidae, Madrellidae, Pinufiidae and Proctonotidae (traditionally considered Arminaceans), Dotidae (traditionally considered Dendronotaceans), Embletoniidae (traditionally considered as Aeolidaceans) and Doridoxidae (formerly included in the infraorder Pseudoeuctenidiacea), which are now provisionally classified into this clade pending of more solid data.

Doto dunnei, “Depuradora” (L’Escala, Girona), 21/04/2012 by Enric Madrenas

The taxonomy of the families of Unassigned Cladobranchia is:

  • Family Charcotiidae Odhner, 1926 (traditionally considered within Arminaceans): includes genus Charcotia Vayssière, 1906 with a single species C. granulosa Vayssière from Antarctic waters, Leminda Griffiths, 1985 with the South African species L. millecra Giffiths, 1985, Pseudotritonia Thiele, 1912, with three cold water species from Antarctica.
  • Family Dironidae Eliot, 1910 (traditionally within Arminaceans): with a single genus Dirona MacFarland, 1905 with only three species, and one D. pellucida Volodchenko, 1941 in Russian waters.
  • Family Goniaeolididae Odhner, 1907 (traditionally considered within Arminaceans): with a single genus Goniaeolis M.Sars, 1861 and a single species in northern European waters, G. typica M.Sars, 1861.
  • Family Heroidae Gray, 1857 (traditionally considered within Arminaceans) with a single genus Hero Alder & Hancock, 1855 and two species from northern Europe, H. blanchardi Vayssière, 1888 and H. formosa (Lovén, 1844)  that has not been found yet in the Iberian Peninsula.
  • Family Madrellidae Preston, 1911 (traditionally within Arminaceans) with genus Madrella Alder & Hancock, 1864 with 4 species, M. aurantiaca Vayssière, 1902 cited in waters of the Balearic Islands, and Eliotia Vayssière, 1909 with a single species E. souleyeti Vayssière, 1909 cited in European waters.
  • Family Pinufiidae Er. Marcus & Ev. Marcus, 1960 (also within the traditional classification Arminaceans) with a single genus and a single species Pinufius rebus Er. Marcus & Ev. Marcus, 1960 living in the tropical Indo-Pacific.
  • Family Proctonotiae Gray, 1853 (traditionally considered within Arminaceans) with genus Bonisa Gosliner, 1981 and a single species from South Africa, B. nakaza Gosliner, 1981; Caldukia Burn & Miller, 1969 with three species of Australian and New Zealand waters; Galeojanolus MC Miller, 1971 with a single species G. ionnae MC Miller, 1971 off the coast of New Zealand; Janolus Bergh, 1884 with twenty species distributed throughout the world’s oceans and three of them, J. hyalinus (Alder & Hancock, 1854), J. cristatus (Delle Chiaje, 1841) and J. faustoi Ortea & Llera 1988 in Spanish territorial waters; and genus Proctonotus Alder & Hancock, 1844 with a single species P. mucroniferus (Alder & Hancock, 1844) in northern Europe.
  • Family Dotidae Gray, 1853 (considered until recently as a member of the Dendronotaceans) with a genus Doto Oken 1815 that includes about 70 species in all oceans of the world, living closely associated with many hydroids and gorgonian species, about 25 of them been cited in Iberian waters; Miesea Marcus, 1961 with a single species M. evelinae (Er. Marcus, 1957) from US Atlantic waters.
  • Family Embletonidae Pruvot-Fol, 1954 (until recently considered within Eolidaceans): with a single genus Embletonia Alder & Hancock, 1851 and two accepted valid species E. gracilis Risbec, 1928 from the Western Pacific and E. pulchra (Alder & Hancock , 1844) from European waters, including the Iberian Peninsula and the Mediterranean.
  • Family Doridoxidae, found in deep waters and with only two species of the genus Doridoxa Bergh, 1899. They have not been found in Iberian waters.

Unassigned Cladobranchia reported in the Mediterranean Sea or the Iberian Peninsula:

Doto caballa

Doto caballa

Doto alidrisi

Doto alidrisi

Doto cervicenigra @ Sta. Maria al Bagno, Lecce, Italy by Cataldo Licchelli

Doto cervicenigra

Doto coronata by Enric Madrenas

Doto coronata

Doto cuspidata by Klas Malmberg (Sweden)

Doto cuspidata

Doto dunnei

Doto dunnei

Doto eireana - Photograph ©Bernard Picton

Doto eireana

Doto floridicola by Enric Madrenas

Doto floridicola

Doto fragaria @ Santa Maria al Bagno (Lecce), Jonian Sea, Italy 7m on hydroids and porifera, 2013 by Cataldo Licchelli

Doto fragaria

Doto fragilis quelhuit 24042008 by Jean Michel Crouzet

Doto fragilis

Doto furva @ Tarifa (Spain) by Manuel Martínez Chacón

Doto furva

Doto koenneckeri - Photograph ©Bernard Picton

Doto koenneckeri

Doto lemchei

Doto lemchei

Doto maculata - Photograph ©Bernard Picton

Doto maculata

Doto millbayana by Klas Malmberg (Sweden)

Doto millbayana

Doto paulinae by Enric Madrenas

Doto paulinae

Doto pinnatifida by João Pedro Silva

Doto pinnatifida

Doto pygmaea 3mm. Reproduced from paper by Ortea et al. 1997 - El género Doto Oken, 1815 en las islas Canarias y de Cabo Verde. License CC By Attribution

Doto pygmaea

Doto rosea by Enric Madrenas

Doto rosea

Doto tuberculata by Klas Malmberg (Sweden)

Doto tuberculata

Doto verdicioi @ Lapamán (Ría de Pontevedra, Spain) 28.03.1979 by Victoriano Urgorri

Doto verdicioi

Embletoria pulchra by José Carlos García Gómez

Embletonia pulchra

Janolus cristatus by Enric Madrenas

Janolus cristatus

Janolus hyalinus on bryozoan Tricellaria inopinata @ Zierikzee, Netherlands 25-09-2016 by Marco Faasse

Janolus hyalinus

Madrella aurantiaca by Manuel Ballesteros

Madrella aurantiaca

Proctonotus mucroniferus Loch Torridon, W. Scotland. Photo Gil Green. - Photograph ©Bernard Picton

Proctonotus mucroniferus