Aldisa smaragdina

Aldisa smaragdina (Ortea, Perez & Llera, 1982)

Aldisa smaragdina by Luis Ángel Díaz Álvarez

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Doridina  

 

Infraorder

Doridoidei  

 

Superfamily

Doridoidea  

 

Family

Dorididae  

 

Genus

Aldisa  

 

Species

Aldisa smaragdina  Ortea, Pérez & Llera, 1982

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 585313).
Taxonomic note: In the last revision of the genus (Millen & Gosliner, 1985) the authors indicate that the situation is unclear. Aldisa smaragdina is believed to be a synonymous with the former Aldisa binotata Pruvot-Fol, 1953. The problem is that the original description of A. binotata is poor, with no information of its anatomy. The unique specimen on which the description was based is lost, so it can not be studied. So European researchers use the name Aldisa smaragdina, as there is no consensus on whether Aldisa binotata can be recognized.

Description
The body is dorso-ventrally flattened, up to 30 mm of length and deep red colored. The mantle is covered with small tubercles. There are two large dark oval spots located between the rhinophores and the gill. There is also a quite faded whitish band on each side, located right behind the first dorsal spot. It has two lamellated rhinophores, with few lamellae arranged almost vertically, protected by tuberculated rhinophoral sheaths. The gill consists of 5 reddish, white tipped gill leaves, protected by a crenulated sheath (with a series of crested mantle projections). The oral tentacles are short and blunt, slightly rolled.

It can be confused with Aldisa banyulensis Pruvot-Fol, 1951, that despite it is also red with two dark spots on the back, it is smaller (with a maximum of 15 mm), has the white dorsal band located right before the second dorsal spot, it has 8 completely translucent red (without white tips) gill leaves, rhinophores with more numerous lamellae that are horizontally arranged, the rhinophoric sheaths and gill sheath with smooth edges, with flattened and triangular, pointy, oral tentacles, it feeds on another sponge: Hemymicale columella, and put less eggs that are larger (200μm in diameter). There is another species with which could be confused, Aldisa expleta Ortea, Perez & Llera, 1982, but it lacks the dark dorsal spots.

Biology
Lives on rocky bottoms, from 3 m depth, where it feeds sponge Phorbas fictitius (Bowerbank, 1866) and is usually found on it, as it has the same coloration as the sponge and the dark spots on the dorsum mimic the inhalent openings, called pore-sieves (cribri), of the sponge, in what is known as crypsis by homocromy. For this reason it is a difficult to see species, and is considered rare. The spawn is a single turn of 1 cm diameter with capsules containing relatively small red eggs (130μm in diameter) each. Skin produces certain substances similar to progesterone.

Etymology

  • Aldisa. Probably referred to an Iceland viking saga of the same name.
  • Smaragdina. From Greek “smaragdos”, meaning “emerald”, because of the colour of the gills, often greenish white.

Distribution
This species was described in 1982 with specimens collected in the waters of the Canary Islands and Asturias. Later it has been cited in the waters of Galicia, Portugal, including Azores and Madeira, also in Morocco and Cape Verde, as well as in the Mediterranean, Gibraltar and the Andalusian coast, also in Levantine coast of Spain and the Balearic Islands. Not present yet in Catalonia (GROC reports for Catalonia correspond to Aldisa banyulensis).

Known georeferenced records of the species: Aldisa smaragdina
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

References for the species: Aldisa smaragdina

    Galicia: Ortea (1978a, as A. banyulensis). Portugal: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, as A. binotata), Calado et al. (2003). Gibraltar: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). Andalucía (Med.): Luque (1983, 1986), Templado et al. (1993b), Ocaña et al. (2000), Gavagnin et al. (2002). Levante: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Gavagnin et al. (2002). Baleares: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). Canarias: Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Llera (1982), Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Madeira: Wirtz (1999), Malaquias et al. (2001). Azores: Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000, as A. binotata), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003).

    General: Ballesteros, Barrajon, Luque, Moreno, Talavera, & Templado, 1986:49; Luque, 1983:66

    Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007 & 2016, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:0 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:1 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Aldisa smaragdina based on our own records.

More pictures

Bibliography

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Further reading

Cite this article as:

Pontes, Miquel, Manuel Ballesteros, Enric Madrenas (2012-2019) "Aldisa smaragdina" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 16/05/2012, Accessed: 16/10/2019 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/2AIFD)

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