Knoutsodonta sparsa

Knoutsodonta sparsa (Alder & Hancock, 1846)

Knoutsodonta sparsa by Manuel Ballesteros

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Doridina  

 

Infraorder

Doridoidei  

 

Superfamily

Onchidoridoidea  

 

Family

Onchidorididae  

 

Genus

Knoutsodonta  

 

Species

Knoutsodonta sparsa  (Alder & Hancock, 1846)

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 1259498).
Synonyms

  • Doris sparsa Alder & Hancock, 1846
  • Onchidoris sparsa (Alder & Hancock, 1846)

Description
This is a small species of Knoutsodonta that does not usually exceed 6 mm in length. The body is very flat and with an oval contour. The coloration is generally yellow, with the center of the dorsum slightly reddish because of the viscera. The mantle margin has small orange-brown spots that contrast with somewhat paler color of the rest of the mantle. When the specimens are observed under binocular microscope a thin black dotting on the mantle becomes apparent, something most clearly visible on the edge of the mantle in ventral view. By transparency the typica spiculation of the dorsum is visible: Transverse spicules in the middle, obliquely laterally and radially arranged around the mantle margin. The dorsum has conical tubercles but with a rounded apex, semitransparent but with an orange-brown tip and a smaller size the closer they are to the mantle margin. The rhinophores are very small, whitish, with few lamellae and some brown spot; there is no rhinophoric sheath but the white gill opening has 2-3 small tubercles like the ones on the dorsum, brown pigmented on the tip. Gill is formed by 5-9 gill leaves depending on the size of the specimen; the unipinnate gill leaves are very small, whitish, forming an incomplete arc around the anus. The foot is white, the reddish-brown digestive gland clearly visible in the center of the foot by transparency. The mouth does not have labial palps.

Biology
This small nudibranch, like others of the same genus, is associated with several species of bryozoans they food on, among which may be mentioned, among others, Cellepora pumicosa, Porella concinna, Celleporina caliciformis (=hassalli) or Schizomavella linearis. Because of its small size, its flattened form, and its peculiar coloration, this is a very cryptic species on the bryozoan colonies on which it is found so it passes almost unnoticed. Little else is known about its biology and reproduction.

Etymology

  • Knoutsodonta, from the Greek meaning “lame tooth”, to represent nudibranch species that lack a rachidian or middle tooth.
  • Sparsa, sparse.

Distribution
There are very few citations of this species, mainly found in the British Isles, Ireland and also in the Iberian Peninsula, where it has been cited in the Cantabrian and Galician coast. First observations in the Mediterranean are credited to Ballesteros (1984) among specimens collected in Tossa de Mar; later on it has also been collected in waters of the Levantine coast.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Knoutsodonta sparsa
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:0 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:1 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Knoutsodonta sparsa based on our own records.

More pictures

Bibliography

    Abraham, P. S. 1877. Revision of the anthobranchiate nudibranchiate Mollusca with descriptions or notices of forty-one hitherto undescribed species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1877: 196-269 [agosto].
    Adams, A. A., and H. Adams. 1853. The genera of recent Mollusca, arranged according to their organization. London (van Voorst): pp.1-256, pls 1-32, 1853; 257-484, pls 33-60, 1854 (1); 1-92, pls 61-72, 1854; 93-284, pls 73-96, 1855; 285-412, pls 97-112, 1856; 413-540, pls 113-128, 1857; 541-661, pls 129-138, 1858 (2). vol 2; pp 45-78 Oct.-Nov. 1854; pp 97-99 Jan 1855; p 632-635 Nov 1858; pls. 62-68, 137, fig. 14; pl 138, fig. 1.
    Alder, J., and A. Hancock. 1846. Notices of some new and rare British species of naked Mollusca. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 18: 289-294, pl. 4 [novembre].
    Ballesteros, M. 1982. Estado actual de la fauna de Doridaceos (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) de las costas Catalanas. Oceanografia de la Mediterrania Occidental, Res. Com Oral Reunion Soc. Cat. Biologia, 2 pp.
    Ballesteros, M. 1984. Onchidoris sparsa (Alder y Hancock, 1846) en el Mediterráneo. Iberus 4: 137-138.
    Ballesteros, M. 1980. Contribución al conocimientos de los Sacoglosos y Nudibranquios (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Estudio anatómico, sistemático y faunístico de las especies del mediterráneo español. Tesis Doctoral. Universitat de Barcelona.
    Ballesteros, M. 2007. Lista actualizada de los opistobranquios (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira. 2: 163–188.
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2019. OPK - Opistobranquis. (https://opistobranquis.info/).
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2016. Actualización del catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira 6(2016): 1-28.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1890. Die Nudibranchien des “Sunda-Meeres”. Malacologische Untersuchungen. In:  Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen von Dr. Carl Gottfried Semper. Zweiter Theil.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1879. Gattungen nordische Doriden. Archiv fur Naturgeschichte 45(1):340-369, pl 19.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1883. Beitrage zu einer Monographie der Polyceraden. III. Verhandlungen der koniglich-kaiserlich Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien (Abhandlungen) 33:135- 180, pls. 6-10.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1880. On the Nudibranchiate Gasteropod Mollusca of the North Pacific Ocean, with special reference to those of Alaska. Second Part. S. Scientific results of the exploration of Alaska by the parties under the charge of W.H. Dall, during the years 1865-1874, Washington, D.C.
    Bergh, R. 1892. System der Nudibranchiaten Gasteropoden. Malacologische Untersuchungen. In: Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen von Dr. Carl Gottfried Semper. Zweiter Theil#Wissenschaftliche Resultate. Band 7, Theil 5. [pp. 1–51, pls 1–4, Mar. 1897; pp. 53–115, pls 5–8, Dec. 1897; pp. 117–158, pls 9–12, Nov. 1898; pp. 159–208, pls 13–16, 27 Mar. 1900; pp. 209–256, pls 17–20, 29 Jan. 1901; pp. 257–312, pls. 21–24, 15 Oct. 1901; pp. 313–382, pls 25–29, 7 Oct. 1902].
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1878. Malacologische Untersuchungen, In: Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen von Dr Carl Gottfried Semper. Zweiter Theil. Wissenschaftliche Resultate. Band 2, Theil 2, Heft 14; pp 603-645, I-L, pls. 66-68.
    Brown, G. H., and B. E. Picton. 1979. Nudibranchs of the British Isles — a colour guide. Underwater Conservation Society, Manchester, by R. Earll.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and T. E. Thompson. 1989. Mediterranean opisthobranch molluscs: a zoogeographic approach. Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 25(5-8):183-204.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., R. Chemello, and R. Giannuzzi-Savelli. 1990. Atlante dei nudibranchi del Mediterraneo. La Conchiglia, Rome 264 pp, 14 pls. (104 clr. ill), line drawings.
    Cervera, J. L., G. Calado, C. Gavaia, M. A. E. Malaquías, J. Templado, M. Ballesteros, J. C. García-Gómez, and C. Megina. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
    Cervera, J. L., J. Templado, J. C. García-Gómez, M. Ballesteros, J. Ortea, F. J. García, J. Ros, and A. A. Luque. 1988. Catálogo actualizado y comentado de los Opistobranquios (Mollusca, Gastropoda) de la Península Ibérica, Baleares y Canarias, con algunas referencias a Ceuta y la isla de Alborán. Iberus, supl. 1: 1-84.
    Eliot, C. N. E. 1910. A monograph of the British nudibranchiate Mollusca: with figures of the species; Figures by the late Joshua Alder and the late Albany Hancock, and others. Ray Society, London.
    Evertsen, J., and T. Bakken. 2005. Nudibranch diversity (Heterobranchia, Gastropoda) along the coast of Norway. Fauna Norvegica, 25: 1-37.
    Evertsen, J., and T. Bakken. 2013. Diversity of Norwegian sea slugs (Nudibranchia): new species to Norwegian coastal waters and new data on distribution of rare species. Fauna Norvegica 32: 45-52.
    Farran, G. P. 1904. The marine fauna of the west coast of Ireland. Part I. The nudibranchiate molluscs of Ballynakill and Bofin Harbours, Co. Galway. Report Sea & Inland Fisheries Ireland for 1901, pt. 2, append. 8:1-10, pls. 18-19.
    Farran, G. P. 1915. Results of a biological survey of Blacksod Bay, Co. Mayo. Department of Agriculture & Technical Instruction for Ireland Fisheries Branch. Dublin. Scientific Investigations, 1914, (III):1-72, pl I.
    Fernández-Ovies, C. L. 1981. Contribución a la clasificación morfológica de las puestas de los opistobranquios (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Boletín de Ciencias de la Naturaleza del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos 28: 3-12.
    Furfaro, G., and E. Trainito. 2017. A new species from the Mediterranean Sea and North-Eastern Atlantic Ocean: Knoutsodonta pictoni n. sp. (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Nudibranchia). Biodiversity Journal, 2017, 8 (2): 725–738.
    Garcia, F. J., and H. Bertsch. 2009. Diversity and distribution of the Gastropoda Opisthobranchia from the Atlantic Ocean: A global biogeographic approach. Scientia Marina. 73: 153–160.
    Garstang, W. 1890. A complete list of the opisthobranchiate Mollusca found at Plymouth; with further observations on their morphology, colours, and natural history. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., new series, 1:399- 457, pls. 27-28.
    Garstang, W. 1889. Report on the nudibranchiate Mollusca of Plymouth Sound. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom n.s. 1(2): 173-198.
    Hayward, P. J., G. D. Wigham, and N. Yonow. 1990. Mollusca I: Polyplacophora, Scaphopoda, and Gastropoda; pp. 628-730, In: , The marine fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe, volume 2, xvi + 996 pp. Oxford University Press.
    Hoffmann, H. 1926. I. Opisthobranchia, In: Die Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostsee, Lieferung III, Teil IX; pp 1- 52. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig.
    Høisæter, T. 1986. An annotated check-list of marine molluscs of the Norwegian coast and adjacent waters. Sarsia 71(2):73-175.
    Hunnam, P., and G. Brown. 1975. Sublittoral nudibranch Mollusca (sea slugs) in Pembrokeshire waters. Field Studies 4(2):131-159.
    Just, H., and M. Edmuns. 1985. North atlantic nudibranchs (Mollusca) seen by Henning Lemche. Ophelia supplement 2: 1-150.
    Long, S. J. 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
    McDonald, G. 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia. 2nd Online Edition, Annotated. 1072 pp  Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz. (http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8115h0wz).
    McKay, D. W., and S. M. Smith. 1979. Marine Mollusca of east Scotland. Royal  Scottish Museum.
    Nordsieck, F. 1972. Die europäischen Meeresschnecken : (Opisthobranchia mit Pyramidellidae, Rissoacea) : vom Eismeer bis Kapverdem, Mittelmeer und Schawarzes Meer. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.
    Nunn, J. D. 2006. The marine Mollusca of Ireland 3. Lough Hyne, Co. Cork. Bulletin of the Irish  Biogeographical Society (30):114-292.
    Odhner, N. H. 1907. Northern and arctic invertebrates in the collection of the swedish state museum (riksmuseum). III. Opisthobranchia and pteropoda. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 41: 1-118.
    Ortea, J. 1979d. Onchidoris sparsa (Alder and Hancock, 1846) in Asturias, Northern Spain. The Veliger 22 (1): 45-48.
    Ortea, J. A. 1979. Nuevas especies de Nudibranquios del Norte de Espana. Fundacion Juan March, Serie Universitaria 86. Flora Y Fauna Acuaticas, p 25-31, 1 pl.
    Ortea, J. 1979. Dos nuevas especies ibéricas de Onchidoris (Mollusca Opisthobranchia, Doridacea) colectadas en Asturias. Boletín de Ciencias de la Naturaleza (IDEA) 24: 167-175.
    Ortea, J., and M. Ballesteros. 1982. Sobre algunos Onchidoris Blainville, 1816 (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Doridacea) del litoral ibérico. Investigación Pesquera 46 (2): 239-254.
    Ortea, J., and V. Urgorri. 1979a. Una nueva especie de Onchidoris (Moluscos, Opistobranquios, Doridáceos) del Norte y Noroeste de España, Onchidoris cervinoi n sp. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 20: 507-513.
    Perrone, A. S. 1990. Recenti acquisizioni faunistiche relative agli Opistobranchi (Aplysiomorpha, Pleurobrancomorpha, Sacoglossa, Nudibranchia) del Mediterraneo. Lavori (Soc. Ven. Sc. Nat) 15:21- 27.
    Picton, B. 1981. Collections of nudibranch Mollusca from the Republic of Ireland made during 1981. Report to the Praeger Committee, Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 5 unnumbered pp.
    Picton, B. E., and C. Morrow. 1994. Onchidoris sparsa accessed through: Nudibranchs of the British Isles on 2014-12-14. (http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W13380#).
    Picton, B. E., and C. Morrow. 1994. A Field guide to the Nudibranchs of the British Isles. Immel Publishing Ltd. London: 143 pp., London.

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes (2012-2019) "Knoutsodonta sparsa" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 29/08/2012, Accessed: 17/07/2019 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/N0Mwa)

In order to copy this cite or text fragments you must be a registered user.