Okenia zoobotryon

Okenia zoobotryon (Smallwood, 1910)

Okenia zoobotryon Smallwood, 1910 by OPK
















































Bermudella zoobotryon   (Smallwood, 1910)

 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 597199).

  • Bermudella zoobotryon (Smallwood, 1910)
  • Polycerella zoobotryon Smallwood, 1910 (original)




  • Okenia. Dedicated to Prof. Dr. Ludwig Gilbert Lorenz Oken, (1779-1851), German natural philosopher, who was editor of the natural history journal “Isis” and published the well-known “Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte” (Natural History Textbook). It’s nomenclature is not binominal, so the names in volume 3 (the zoology part) are unavailable for nomenclatural use.
  • Zoobotryon. A genus of colonial bryozoan with a bush-like structure, on which apparently this Okenia feeds.

Pola (2015) redescribes Okenia zoobotryon and also proposes a neotype for it. This author commented us that this species has a strictly Caribbean distribution (Bermuda island, its type locality, and Cuba) and that citations of this species around the world may correspond to a complex of cryptic species with a very similar morphology that must be molecularly analyzed. The specimens found in the Mare Piccolo (Salento, Italy) and the Costa Brava (Catalonia, Spain) correspond to Okenia longiductis Pola, Paz-Sedano, Macali, Minchin, Marchini, Vitale, Licchelli & Crocetta, 2019.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Okenia zoobotryon
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions


    Western Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Eastern Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Atlantic Ocean: ★☆☆☆☆

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Okenia zoobotryon based on our own records.

More pictures

    We have no (more) pictures for Okenia zoobotryon


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    Ballesteros M, Madrenas E, Pontes M. 2023. OPK - Opistobranquis. Available from https://opistobranquis.info/.
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    Cervera JL, Calado G, Gavaia C, et al. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
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    Fischer MA. 2006. Opisthobranchs from the Chilean coast, a taxonomic, morphological and  histological study of nudibranch species. 173 p.
    Frank, B. et al. 1998 2014. Okenia zoobotryon accessed through: JaxShells.org on 2014-12-14. Available from http://www.jaxshells.org/zoob8.htm.
    Garcia FJ, Bertsch H. 2009. Diversity and distribution of the Gastropoda Opisthobranchia from the Atlantic Ocean: A global biogeographic approach. Scientia Marina. 73(1):153–160. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n1153.
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    Ortea J, Moro L, Bacallado JJ. 2015. Babosas Marinas Canarias. Turquesa Ediciones.
    Ortea J, L. Moro MC, Bacallado JJ. 2003. Resultados Científicos del proyecto “Macaronesia 2000” Chinijo-2002: Moluscos Opistobranquios. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 14 (3-4): 165-180.
    Ortea JA, Moro L, Bacallado JJ, et al. 2001. Catálogo actualizado de los Moluscos Opistobranquios de las Islas Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias. 12(3–4):105–136.
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    Pola M. 2015. The Identity of Okenia zoobotryon (Smallwood, 1910) (Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae): Redescription and Proposed Designation of a Neotype. American Malacological Bulletin, 33(1):1-6. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4003/006.033.0101.
    Pola M, Paz-Sedano S, Macali A, et al. 2019. What is really out there? Review of the genus Okenia Menke, 1830 (Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae) in the Mediterranean Sea with description of two new species. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0215037. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0215037.
    Rudman WB. 2004. Further species of the opisthobranch genus Okenia (Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae) from the Indo-West Pacific. Zootaxa 695 : 1-70.
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    Smallwood WM. 1913. Polycerella zoobotryon (Smallwood). Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences 47(16):609- 630.
    Smallwood WM. 1912. Polycerella zoobotryon. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 47: 609–630.
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    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, M., Madrenas, E. & Pontes, M. (2023) "Okenia zoobotryon" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 19/12/2014. Accessed: 02/03/2024. Available at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/?p=17177)

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