Okenia zoobotryon

Okenia zoobotryon (Smallwood, 1910)

Okenia zoobotryon Smallwood, 1910 by OPK













































Okenia zoobotryon  (Smallwood, 1910)

 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 181223).

  • Bermudella zoobotryon (Smallwood, 1910)
  • Polycerella zoobotryon Smallwood, 1910 (original)




  • Okenia. Dedicated to Prof. Dr. Ludwig Gilbert Lorenz Oken, (1779-1851), German natural philosopher, who was editor of the natural history journal “Isis” and published the well-known “Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte” (Natural History Textbook). It’s nomenclature is not binominal, so the names in volume 3 (the zoology part) are unavailable for nomenclatural use.
  • Zoobotryon. A genus of colonial bryozoan with a bush-like structure, on which apparently this Okenia feeds.

Pola (2015) redescribes Okenia zoobotryon and also proposes a neotype for it. This author commented us that this species has a strictly Caribbean distribution (Bermuda island, its type locality, and Cuba) and that citations of this species around the world may correspond to a complex of cryptic species with a very similar morphology that must be molecularly analyzed. The specimens found in the Mare Piccolo (Salento, Italy) and the Costa Brava (Catalonia, Spain) correspond to Okenia longiductis Pola, Paz-Sedano, Macali, Minchin, Marchini, Vitale, Licchelli & Crocetta, 2019.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Okenia zoobotryon
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions


    Western Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Eastern Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Atlantic Ocean: ★☆☆☆☆

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Okenia zoobotryon based on our own records.

More pictures

    We have no (more) pictures for Okenia zoobotryon


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    Debelius, H., and R. H. Kuiter. 2007. Nudibranchs of the world. IKAN- Unterwasserarchiv, Frankfurt.
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    Fischer, M. A. 2006. Opisthobranchs from the Chilean coast, a taxonomic, morphological and  histological study of nudibranch species.
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    Ortea, J. A., L. Moro, J. J. Bacallado, and R. Herrera. 2001. Catálogo actualizado de los Moluscos Opistobranquios de las Islas Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias. 12: 105–136.
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    Pola, M. 2015. The Identity of Okenia zoobotryon (Smallwood, 1910) (Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae): Redescription and Proposed Designation of a Neotype. American Malacological Bulletin, 33(1):1-6.
    Pola, M., S. Paz-Sedano, A. Macali, D. Minchin, A. Marchini, F. Vitale, C. Licchelli, and F. Crocetta. 2019. What is really out there? Review of the genus Okenia Menke, 1830 (Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae) in the Mediterranean Sea with description of two new species. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0215037.
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    Smallwood, W. M. 1912. Polycerella zoobotryon. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 47: 609–630.
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    Valdés, A., J. Hamann, D. W. Behrens, and A. DuPont. 2006. Caribbean sea slugs: a field guide to the opisthobranch mollusks from the tropical northwestern Atlantic. Washington: Sea Challengers Natural History Books. 289 pp.
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    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, M., Madrenas, E. & Pontes, M. (2023) "Okenia zoobotryon" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 19/12/2014. Accessed: 09/12/2023. Available at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/?p=17177)

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