Felimida luteorosea (von Rapp, 1827)
Class: Gastropoda Cuvier, 1797
Subclass: Heterobranchia J.E. Gray, 1840
Clade: Euthyneura Spengel, 1881
Clade: Nudipleura Wägele & Willan, 2000
Order: Nudibranchia Cuvier, 1817
Suborder: Euctenidiacea Tardy, 1970
Infraorder: Doridacea Thiele, 1931
Superfamily: Doridoidea Rafinesque, 1815
Family: Chromodorididae Bergh, 1891
Genus: Felimida Ev. Marcus 1971
Species: Felimida luteorosea (von Rapp, 1827)
Taxonomic note: The European Atlantic and Mediterranean species of the genus Chromodoris and Hypselodoris have been reconsidered. After molecular analysis of the Chromodorididae performed by Johnson & Gosliner (2012, Traditional taxonomic groupings mask evolutionary history: A molecular phylogeny and new classification of the chromodorid nudibranchs. PLoS ONE 7(4): 33479) the Hypselodoris species have been included in the genus Felimare Ev. Marcus & Er. Marcus, 1967 and the Chromodoris species have been included in the genus Felimida Ev. Marcus, 1971.
- Chromodoris iheringi Bergh, 1879
- Chromodoris luteorosea (Rapp, 1827)
- Doris luteorosea Rapp, 1827 (original)
The specimens of this species usually measure between 20 and 30 mm, although it has been recorded a maximum size of 55 mm. Its showy coloration make it easily identifiable and at the same time make this one of the most beautiful mediterranean nudibranch species. The back is more or less dark pink or purple with yellow round or oval spots of different sizes and many times they are contoured by a white line. The edge of the mantle has a broad yellow band which usually is both internally and externally contoured by a white line. The rhinophores are purple, the basal portion without lamellae is of a somewhat clearer shade; the laminar portion has 15-20 lamellae tightly placed and the binocular microscope reveals bluish scores. The tips of rhinophores are usually whitish or very soft bluish. The rhinophoric sheath is slightly elevated and its upper edge is smooth. The gill consists of 9 violet gill leaves, with a slightly lighter colored base. The gill leaves are narrow and with small lamellae and the tip is usually pigmented white. The anal papilla is located in the center of the gill leaves, it is slightly prominent and coloured purple. The foot stands behind the mantle forming a pointed tail; the tail is also purple, but there are usually some yellow spots on its dorsal area, as well as in the posterior margins of the foot. Ventrally, the foot and the underside of the mantle are coloured light violet. The foot develops wide cephalic angles in its front side, and the mouth is flanked by a pair of short buccal palps.
This nudibranch is usually found under stones from 10-15 m deep. It is also cited living in dimly illuminated precoralligenous walls and, in the Mediterranean, on leaves of Posidonia oceanica. It feeds on sponges like Aplysilla rosea and Spongionella pulchella (Barletta & Melone, 1976) and (Cattaneo-Vietti et al. 1990). Its spawn, egg size and embryonic development is still unknown.
- Luteorosea refers to the yellow stains (=luteo) of the dorsum and to the pink or violet colour (=rosea) of this species.
This is an eminently Mediterranean species that is also found in the nearby Atlantic areas. Thus it has been cited in Angola (Gofas et al. Conchas e moluscos de Angola), Canary islands, all coastal areas of the Iberian Peninsula (Cervera et al., 2004) and Balearic islands (Darder, 2011). In the Catalan coast it has been cited at Es Caials, Cala Sant Antoni, Cadaques, L’Escala, Illes Medes, Illes Formigues, Tossa de Mar, Cala Canyelles, Cala Sant Francesc, Blanes, port of Tarragona and Ametlla de Mar (Port de l’Estany).
| : OBIS|
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
| : OPK|
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions
References for the species: Felimida luteorosea
- Cantabria: Ros (1975), Ortea and Valdés (1991), Wirtz and Debelius (2003).
Galicia: Ortea (1977c, as Glossodoris).
Portugal: Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003).
Andalucía (Atl.): Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), García-Gómez et al. (1989).
Gibraltar: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989), García-Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991).
Andalucía (Med.): Templado et al. (1993b), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press).
Levante: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Templado et al. (2002).
Catalunya: Vicente (1964), Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985), Ros & Altimira (1977), Ballesteros (1980, 1985), Pereira (1980), Altimira et al. (1981), Pereira & Ballesteros (1982), Huelin & Ros (1984), Domènech et al. (2002), M@re Nostrum [Cap Falcó de Portbou 8/1998, Cap Cerbère 7/2007, illa Mateua 7/1997]. Antes de 1984, citada como Glossodoris.
Canarias: Pérez Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003).
General: Bergh, 1880b:17; Cattaneo- Vietti, Chemello, & Giannuzzi-Savelli, 1990:65[P]; Edmunds, 1981:187[P]; 1982:520; Ihering, 1880:27; Perrone, 1983b:133; Riedl, 1983:335; Schmekel, 1970:192; Schmekel & Portmann, 1982:59[P]; Vayssiere, 1901a:34; 1913a:331; 1919:71Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007 & 2016, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.
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