Hydatina physis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Hydatina physis by Sonja OomsTaxonomy
Hydatina physis (Linnaeus, 1758)
| ||Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)|
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 215423).
Odhner named Hydatina stromfelti
the Atlantic form of this species, later synonymized with Hydatina vesicaria
, a thesis supported by Voskuil (1995) and currently accepted by WoRMS (2016), however, according to Rudman (Sea Slug Forum, 2010) it seems there are no recognisable anatomical differences and no consistent shell differences between them and Hydatina physis
so he concluded that they were all a single species with a circumtropical distribution.
- Aplustrum virgatum Mörch, 1852
- Bulla atrolineata Schröter, 1804
- Bulla physis Linnaeus, 1758 (original)
- Bulla quoyana d’Orbigny, 1845
- Bulla staminea Menke, 1835
- Hydatina filosa Schumacher, 1817
This species can grow up to 60 mm (Kensley, 1973) but there are reports of bigger animals up to 92mm (Pittman & Fiene, 2016) in Hawai’i, (total length extrapolated from the shell’s size). The body colour varies from pale rose, almost white, to reddish brown, with the foot and cephalic shield lobes displaying a vivid iridescent blue coloured margin. The shell is globose, of ‘bubble’ type, thin, fragile, colored translucent white, and convoluted in three turns. The bigger (or body) turn is large enough to cover the other turns. The shell has noticeable brown to black spiral lines, usually two slightly broader lines bordering one or more narrower lines. The aperture of the shell is very large, but the complete body can barely retract into the shell, and they seldom do so. The operculum is missing, the columella and columellar muscle are very reduced. The head bears two black eyes located between the cephalic shield lobes. Close to them are the Hancock’s Organ (a chemosensory organ in primitive cephalaspidean sea slugs), that consist of a row of folds or ‘flaps’. The front of the head shield is well developed into a pair of large lobe-like tentacles. The cream coloured gill extends out on the right side of the animal, from the mantle cavity within the shell and slightly behind the genitalia. It has a very dark and long ‘proboscis-like’ muscular oral tube that seems adapted to be inserted down the tubes of the worms it feeds on. The foot is very large and broad, extends beyond the shell when the animal is in motion, and it has fleshy wing-like flaps, called parapodia.
This species is commonly found in shallow waters (usually not deeper than 5 m) crawling over or through sandy substrate in sand flats and rock pools. It’s main food source are cirratulid polychaete worms (Kilburn & Rippey, 1982), a group of worms that live in crevices or in sand burrows and feed by extending long sticky tentacles out over the nearby sand and rock to pick up detrital food particles. Hydatina physis captures its preys by everting the long ‘proboscis’ oral tube down the burrow of the worm to get it. It is a restricted and eurythermal reproducer, as it does not reproduce round the year and spawning occurs during the season of relatively low temperature, covering a long period of four months, from October to mid of February in the tropics (Zehra & Perveen, 1992). A similar relationship between temperature and spawning has also been established by Amio (1963). The migration and aggregation of adults (sometimes they occur in large numbers, up to 20 specimens per square meter) from their subtidal habitats, prior to the onset of breeding season is an indication of migratory as well as aggregative behavior of breeding. The spawn consists on a twisted egg ribbon that is completely produced on the animal’s parapodia before attaching it to the substrate by a mucus thread. The eggmass anchoring is achieved by the animal turning itself upside down on the substrate so the foot faces upwards (Zehra & Perveen, 1992). The milky white eggs are enclosed in a single layer of hyaline capsules (4-6 eggs per capsule). On an average, a single egg ribbon contains more than 10.000 eggs at the peak of the breeding season. Development to hatching takes 13-14 days at 25-26°C (Zehra & Perveen, 1992). Only 62% of total hatchings emerged as free swimming veligers in laboratory conditions, but this situation may vary in nature. It is a nocturnal species that buries itself in sand during the day. It follows a 12 h nocturnal circadian rhythm mediated by light intensity and modulated by food availability. The mating behaviour seems to be primarily influenced by the lunar cycle (Murugan et al., 2011). As previously stated Hydatina physis is barely capable of hiding in its shell for protection, so it relies on distasteful acid glands in their skin and burrowing in the sand to protect itself from possible predators.
- Hydatina – from Greek ὕδωρ – hýdōr, “water”
- Physis, from Greek: φύσις is usually translated into English as “nature” or “natural form of a thing”, but also refers to the principle of growth or change in nature, to the nature as the source of growth or change or to something that grows, becomes, or develops.
Hydatina physis is a circumglobal species of warm and temperate waters (Rippingale & McMichael, 1961). It has been found in the shallow tropical waters of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans (Kilburn & Rippey, 1982; Wells & Bryce, 1986; Wirtz, 1999). In the Indo-Pacific it has been reported from the waters of Japan (Rudman, 1972), the Philippines (Satyamurti, 1952), Hawai’i (Rudman, 1972), Australia (Springsteen & Leobrfra, 1986; Short & Potter, 1987; Sethi, 2013), New Zealand (Rudman, 1972) and South Africa (Sundaram, 1969; Rudman, 1972; Voskuil, 1995; Venkatraman & Venkataraman, 2012). In the Atlantic it has been reported from Faial Island, Azores (Yoshiyama & Darling, 1982; Wirtz, 1999), São Tiago Island, Cape Verde (Wirtz, 1999), and in the Canary Islands (Odhner, 1931 as H. stromfelti; Wirtz, 1999).
MonthThis chart displays the monthly observation probability for Hydatina physis based on our own records.
Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.
Abbott, R. T., & Dance, S. P. (2000). Compendium of Sea Shells. California, USA: Odyssey Publishing.
Apte, D. (2009). Opisthobranch fauna of Lakshadweep islands, India, with 52 new records to Lakshadweep and 40 new records to India. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 10, 162–175.
Ballesteros, M., Madrenas, E., & Pontes, M. (2020). OPK - Opistobranquis [Reference]. Retrieved January 2, 2019, from https://opistobranquis.info/
Bartsch, P. (1940). Figures and descriptions of the animals of Hydatina physis Linnaeus and H vesicaria Solander. Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural 14(4): 267-268, pl 48.
Beu, A. G. (2011). Marine Molluscs of oxygen isotope stages of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 4. Gastropoda (Ptenoglossa, Neogastropoda, Heterobranchia). Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 41, 1–153.
Burn, R. (2006). A checklist and bibliography of the Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Victoria and the Bass Strait area, south-eastern Australia. Museum Victoria Science Reports 10:1–42.
Burn, R. F., & Thompson, T. E. (1998). Order Cephalaspidea, In: Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne, Part B VIII; pp 943-949.
Cervera, J. L., Calado, G., Gavaia, C., Malaquías, M. A. E., Templado, J., Ballesteros, M., … Megina, C. (2004). An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
Debelius, H. (1996). Nudibranchs and Sea Snails: Indo-Pacific Field Guide. IKAN-Unterwasserarchiv, Frankfurt, Germany, 321 pp, 1000+ color illus.
Flanders Marine Institute. (2018). Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase: Territorial Seas. Retrieved from http://www.marineregions.org/
Frank, B. et al. (1998, 2014). Hydatina physis accessed through: JaxShells.org on 2014-12-14. Retrieved from http://www.jaxshells.org/bubbj.htm
Ganesh, T., Surya Rao, K. V., & Raman, A. V. (2009). Paper bubble shell, Hydatina zonata (Gastropoda: Hydatinidae) from the north-east coast of India. Marine Biodiversity Records 2, 1–3.
Gosliner, T. M. (1987). Nudibranchs of Southern Africa; A guide to Opisthobranchs Molluscs of Southern Africa. Sea Challengers and Jeff Hamann. Monterey, California, EEUU: 136 pp.
Gosliner, T., Behrens, D. W., & Valdés, Á. (2008). Indo-Pacific nudibranchs and sea slugs : a field guide to the world’s most diverse fauna. Gig Harbor, Wash., U.S.A.; San Francisco, Calif., U.S.A.: Sea Challengers Natural History Books ; California Academy of Sciences.
Habe, T. (1950). Hydatinidae, Bullidae and Akeridae in Japan. Illus. Cat. Jap. Shells (3): 17-24.
Hamel, J., & Mercier, A. (2006). Factors regulating the breeding and foraging activity of a tropical opisthobranch. Hydrobiologia 571, 225–236.
Kay, E. A. (1979). Hawaiian marine shells, reef and shore fauna of Hawaii, section 4: Mollusca. Bernice p Bishop Museum Special Publication 64(4), xviii + 653 pp.
Kensley, B. (1973). Sea shells of Southern Africa. Maskew Miller Ltd.
Kilburn, R. N., & Rippey, E. (1982). Sea Shells of Southern Africa. Macmillan South Africa, Johannesburg, xi.
Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Holmiae (Salvii): vol 1, 824 pp (editio decima, reformata).
Long, S. J. (2006). Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
Macedo, M. C. C., Macedo, M. I. C., & Borges, J. P. (1999). Conchas marinhas de Portugal. Verbo. Lisbon: 516 pp.
Malaquias, M. A. E. (2001). Updated and annotated checklist of the opisthobranch molluscs (excluding Thecosomata and Gymnosomata), from the Azores archipelago (North Atlantic Ocean, Portugal). Iberus 19 (1): 37-48.
Malaquias, M. A. E., Martínez, E., & Abreu, A. D. (2002). Cephalaspidea sensu lato (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) of the Madeira Archipelago and Selvagens Islands, northeast Atlantic, Portugal. American Malacological Bulletin
(1–2), 65–83. Retrieved from ://WOS:000181210300007
Malaquias, M. A. E., Mackenzie-Dodds, J., Bouchet, P., Gosliner, T. M., & Reid, D. G. (2009). A molecular phylogeny of the Cephalaspidea sensu lato (Gastropoda: Euthyneura): Architectibranchia redefined and Runcinacea reinstated. Zoologica Scripta 38(1): 23-41
McDonald, G. (2009). Bibliographia Nudibranchia. 2nd Online Edition, Annotated. 1072 pp Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8115h0wz
Menon, P. K. B., Datta Gupta, A. K., & Das Gupta, D. (1961). On the marine fauna of the Gulf of Kutch. Bombay Natural History Society 58(2):475-494, pls. 1-10.
Moro, L., Bacallado, J. J., & Ortea, J. A. (2010). Babosas marinas de las islas Canarias. Actas VI Semana Científica Telesforo Bravo, Instituto de Estudios Hispánicos de Canarias
Moro, L., Martín Esquivel, J. L., Garrido Sanahuja, M. J., & Izquierdo Zamora, I. (2003). Lista de especies marinas de Canarias (algas, hongos, plantas y animales). Consejería de Política Territorial y Medio Ambiente del Gobierno de Canarias.
Morris, P. A. (1966). A field guide to Pacific coast shells, including shells of Hawaii and Gulf of California. Houghton Mifflin publishing.
Murugan, S., Dhanaya, S., Sarcar, A. B., Nagnathan, V., Rajagopal, S., & Balasbramanian, T. (2011). Fishery biology, demography of three spotted sea horse, Hippocampus trimaculatus inhabiting Gulf of Mannar region, South east coast of India. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences 40, 411–423.
Nordsieck, F., & García-Talavera, F. (1979). Moluscos marinos de Canarias y Madeira (Gastropoda). Aula de Cultura de Tenerife. Tenerife, Spain: 208 pp.; pls. I-XLVI.
Ortea, J., Espinosa, J., Caballer, M., & Buske, Y. (2012). Initial inventory of the seaslugs (Opisthobranchia and Sacoglossa) from the expedition Karubentos, held in May 2012 in Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea). Revista de La Academia Canaria de Ciencias 24: 153-182.
Ortea, J. A., Moro, L., Bacallado, J. J., & Herrera, R. (2001). Catálogo actualizado de los Moluscos Opistobranquios de las Islas Canarias. Revista de La Academia Canaria de Ciencias 12 (3-4): 105-136.
Oskars, T. R., Bouchet, P., & Malaquias, M. A. E. (2015). A new phylogeny of the Cephalaspidea (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia)based on expanded taxon sampling and gene markers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 89 (2015) 130–150
. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2015.04.011
Pérez Sánchez, J. M., & Moreno, E. (1990). Invertebrados Marinos de Canarias. Ediciones del Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain: 335 pp.
Pilsbry, H. A. (1895). Catalogue of the Marine Shells of Japan with Descriptions of New Species and Notes on Others Collected by Frederick Stearns. F. Stearns, Detroit, viii + 196 pp., 11 pls.
Poppe, G. T., & Goto, Y. (1991). European Seashells, Vol 1. Wiesbaden, Verlag C.Hemmen: 352 pp.
Richards, D. (1981). South African shell; a collector’s guide. Struik Publishers.
Rippingale, O. H., & McMichael, D. F. (1961). Queensland and Great Barrier Reef shells. Jacaranda Press.
Rudman, W. B. (1972). The anatomy of the opisthobranch genus Hydatina and the functioning of the mantle cavity and the alimentary canal. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 51(2): 121-39, 14 figs, 1 plate.
Rudman, W. B. (1972). Studies on the primitive opisthobranch genera Bullina Ferussac and Micromelo Pilsbry. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 51(2): 105-19, 8 figs.
Rudman W.B. et al. (1998, 2010). Hydatina physis accessed through: Sea Slug Forum on 2014-12-14. Retrieved from http://seaslugforum.net/showall/hydaphys
Satyamurti, S. T. (1952). The Mollusca of Krusadai Island (in the Gulf of Mannar) I. Amphineura and Gastropoda. Bulletin Madras Government Museum, New Series, Natural History Section 1(2) Pt. 6, Pp. 1-258, Pls. 1-34.
Sethi, S. (2013). New distributional record of zoned paper bubbleshell sea slug, Hydatinazonata (Gastropoda: Hydatinidae) from the Bay of Bengal, off Chennai. Marine Fisheries Information Service 215, 22–23.
Short, J. W., & Potter, D. G. (1987). Shells of Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef: marine gastropods. Golden Press.
Springsteen, F. J., & Leobrfra, F. M. (1986). Shells of the Philippines. Carfel Seashell Museum.
Sundaram, K. S. (1969). Catalogue of molluscs. Bulletin of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI, Cochin), 9, 1–25.
Valdés, A., Hamann, J., Behrens, D. W., & DuPont, A. (2006). Caribbean sea slugs: a field guide to the opisthobranch mollusks from the tropical northwestern Atlantic. Washington: Sea Challengers Natural History Books. 289 pp.
Cite this article as:
Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel PontesIn order to copy this cite or text fragments you must be a registered user.
(2012-2020) "Hydatina physis"
, Published: 21/12/2014, Accessed: 07/04/2020 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/q9H7C