Bursatella leachii Blainville, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia), a successful global sea hare

Miquel Pontes1 & Manuel Ballesteros 1, 2

1VIMAR, Vida Marina
2Emeritus Professor, Universitat de Barcelona, mballesteros@ub.edu

Introduction

Sea hares (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Aplysiida) are mollusks that live in temperate, subtropical or tropical seas. No species lives in polar seas. Most of the approximately 80 known species are medium to large in size and their diet is strictly herbivorous. Many species of sea hares have well-developed lateral extensions of the body (known as parapods) that allow some species to use them as fins for swimming, as, for example, occurs with Aplysia fasciata and Akera bullata.

The species Bursatella leachii, the main character of this article, is a sea hare that does not share these traits because its parapods are fused, leaving only a small hole that communicates with the pallial cavity. In OPK (Ballesteros et al., 2023) you can delve into the curious morphology of this species, as well as different aspects of its biology. This species prefers to live in shallow bottoms and calm waters where macroscopic algae and seagrasses grow. In the Mediterranean it is usually found on sandy or muddy bottoms of bays, coastal lagoons or the interior of ports, often in meadows of Caulerpa prolifera or phanerogams such as Zostera noltei, Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica, although it feeds mainly on diatoms, cyanobacteria and detritus, but it may occasionally feed on algae (Paige, 1988).

But Bursatella leachii has some unknowns, some of them impossible to resolve, such as, for example, the exact origin of the first captured specimens that led to its recognition as a species. Its type locality is not known, as already indicated in volume 5 of the Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles (Blainvile, 1817) edited by the famous French naturalist Georges Cuvier, who writes in its original language in French in the Bursatella entry : “On ignore sa patrie” (Figure 1). Later Eales & Engel (1935) indicate that the holotype, deposited in the British Museum in London, was collected in the “Indian Seas”, supposedly in some area where the Indian Ocean bathes the coasts of India, without specifying any type locality.

Figura 1. Descripción original de la especie Bursatella leachii en la obra de Cuvier (1817).

Figure 1. Original description of Bursatella leachii by Cuvier (1817).

On the other hand, due to its great chromatic variability and wide geographical distribution, numerous species included in the genera Aclesia, Aplysia, Barnadaclesia, Notarchus and Ramosaclesia or subspecies of Bursatella have been described, which are currently considered synonyms of B. leachii (Bazzicalupo et al ., 2020; WoRMS, 2023) (Table I).

Table I. List of species and subspecies considered synonyms of B. leachii according to WoRMS and the geographical area where they were cited.

SynonymGeographical Area
Bursatella leachii leachii Blainville, 1817Sea of India
Bursatella savigniana Audouin, 1826Red Sea
Bursatella leachii savigniana Audouin, 1826Red Sea
Aplysia pleii Rang, 1828Western Atlantic, Antilles
Bursatella leachii pleii (Rang, 1828)Western Atlantic, Antilles
Notarchus laciniatus Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830Red Sea
Aplysia cirrhifera Quoy & Gaimard, 1832Indian Ocean, Mauritius
Bursatella lacinulata A. Gould, 1852Western Atlantic, Brazil
Bursatella leachii lacinulata A. Gould, 1852Western Atlantic, Brazil
Notarchus cirrosus W. Stimpson, 1855Western Pacífic, China Sea and Japan
Aclesia glauca Cheeseman, 1878Southern Pacific, New Zealand
Notarchus intrapictus Cockerell, 1893Western Atlantic, Jamaica
Notarchus brevipes Hägg, 1904Red Sea
Aclesia freeri L. E. Griffin, 1912Western Pacific, Philippines
Aclesia africana Engel, 1926South Africa
Bursatella leachii africana (Engel, 1926)South Africa
Aclesia rosea Engel, 1926Western Africa
Bursatella leachii rosea (Engel, 1926)Western Africa
Notarchus villosus O'Donoghue, 1929South Africa
Ramosaclesia rex J. K. Allan, 1932Australia
Bursatella leachii hirasei Eales & Engel, 1935Japan
Bursatella leachii guineensis Bebbington, 1969Eastern Atlantic, Ghana

Until very recently B. leachii was considered the only species of the genus Bursatella, with a circumtropical distribution and also present in temperate seas such as the Mediterranean Sea. However, Bazzicalupo et al. (2020) and Nimbs & Wilson (2020), by using molecular analysis methods, managed to establish two new species: B. ocelligera and B. hirsuta, whose distribution is the Central and Western Pacific Ocean, respectively. It is still unknown why B. leachii has not yet been found along the American coasts of the Pacific Ocean or along the European coasts of the Atlantic Ocean.

Another mystery about B. leachii was related to both its presence and the origin of the specimens found in the Mediterranean Sea. In this sea, the presence of B. leachii is relatively recent, with the first record of this species (O’Donoghue & White, 1940) off the coast of Israel in 1940 and, since then, there have been numerous records that seemed to indicate its expansion from the eastern basin of the Mediterranean to the western basin, so its arrival in the Mediterranean was postulated through a Lessepsian migration from the Red Sea. However, the results of a recent work (Bazzicalupo et al., 2018), when comparing different specimens from the Atlantic, the Indo-Pacific and the Mediterranean, have proven that Mediterranean specimens have more affinities in their haplotypes with those of Atlantic origin than with those of Indo-Pacific origin, thus suggesting the hypothesis of a migration of the species from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean through the Strait of Gibraltar. This has also been corroborated by another more recent work (Córdoba et al., 2023) when studying specimens collected on the Catalan coasts (NE Spain).

This article provides an extensive table with the localized records of B. leachii at a global level obtained through scientific publications, data from specimens preserved in museums and research centers, from Internet platforms confirmed by photographs or unpublished data. The presence and expansion of this species on the coasts of Catalonia (NE Spain) is discussed.

 

Results and discussion

Table II shows all the records of B. leachii located in the different consulted works. You can see how the oldest quotes from the 19th and early 20th centuries generally correspond to tropical or subtropical marine zones, geographically located around the original occurrence of the species (coasts of India or the Indian Ocean). From the 1930s onwards the species is recorded in numerous localities on the Pacific coast of Australia, Florida, South Africa, also in Japan, in the Caribbean, in the Gulf of Mexico, New Zealand, Brazil, the Philippines, French Polynesia and India. In the Mediterranean its presence has been known since the 1940s.

All these data indicate that its distribution area is between latitudes 40ºN and 40ºS in almost all seas. In the Atlantic Ocean, its northern limit on the coast of North America is 35ºN at North Carolina (USA) (Kruczynski & Porter, 1969) while its southern limit is 25º34’S at Pontal do Sul, Brazil. On the eastern Atlantic coasts, so far it has only been recorded in the Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands, Senegal, Ghana, Sierra Leone and South Africa. There is no record of the species on the Atlantic coasts of the European continent. In the Indian Ocean the species has been recorded in the Red Sea, on the island of Mauritius and on the coasts of India. In the Pacific it has been recorded from 34ºN at Fukeko (Japan), to 38ºS at Flinders Reef (Australia). In this ocean there are numerous records of B. leachii on the eastern coasts of Australia, which is considered a “hotspot” for sea hares worldwide (Nimbs et al . 2016). It has also been reported in the Sea of ​​Japan, in the Philippines, New Zealand and in French Polynesia. As already indicated, there is no record of the species on the American coasts of the Pacific Ocean, possibly due to cold water currents such as the Humboldt or the California Current, as well as deep and cold water upwelling phenomena that make these coasts unfavorable for numerous species of warm or temperate waters such as B. leachii.

In recent decades, the Mediterranean Sea has become a true “hotspot” for the geographical distribution of B. leachii . Since it was first recorded in 1940, records of this species in the Mediterranean have increased almost exponentially. It is true that during these last decades studies of Mediterranean marine biodiversity have multiplied, not only on the coasts of Southern Europe, but also scientists and naturalists from countries such as Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Libya and Egypt, which have contributed to a much better understanding of the distribution of numerous species. It is also postulated about the phenomenon known as “tropicalization” of the waters of the Mediterranean, which are undergoing noticeable warming in general and which is allowing the arrival and colonization by numerous “thermophilous” species, whether they come from the Indo-Pacific (lessepsian migration ) and from the subtropical Atlantic, which appears to be the case for B. leachii .

Selfati et al. (2017) provide a table with all records of B. leachii by country on the Mediterranean coasts. Italy is the Mediterranean country with the most records of B. leachii , both on its western coasts and those of the Adriatic, where the species has been reported on numerous occasions since the 1970s. In the other countries bordering the Mediterranean, the presence of B. leachii has been reported and chronologically in the following order: on the coasts of Israel/Palestine it has been known since 1940 (O’Donoghue & White, 1940), in Turkey since 1959 (Swennen 1969), on the island of Malta since 1969 (Bebbington, 1970), in Egypt since 1975 (Barash & Danin, 1977), in Greece since 1975 (Barash & Danin, 1986), in Tunisia since 1982 (Antit et al., 2011), in Croatia since 1986 (Jaklin & Vio, 1989), in Lebanon since 1999 (Zenetos et al., 2004), in Libya since 2000 (Zgozi et al. (2002) [fide Bazairi et al (2013)], in Slovenia since 2001 (Lipej et al., 2008), in Algeria since 2008 (Lamouti & Bachari in Eleftheriou et al., 2011), in Montenegro since 2009 (Mačić & Kljajić, 2012) , in Albania since 2013 (Xharahi et al. in Gerovasileiou et al., 2017), in France since 2014 (Riondy et al ., 2017), on the Moroccan coasts its presence has been known since 2016 (Selfati et al., 2016) and on the island of Cyprus since 2016 (Lipej et al., 2017).

In the Iberian Peninsula there are no records of the species on the Atlantic coasts, but there are many on the Mediterranean coasts. It was reported for the first time for Spanish waters in the Balearic archipelago in 1996 by Oliver & Terrasa (2004), who found specimens up to 12 cm of length in different locations on the island of Mallorca and on different dates. They even detected the aggregation of numerous individuals in S’Arenal beach, located very close to the city of Palma de Mallorca. These authors provide a map of the Mediterranean Sea with the localities where specimens of this species had been recorded until 2004. On the peninsular coasts B. leachii appeared later, it was recorded for the first time in 2007 in the Ebro Delta (Weitzmann et al., 2007). Since then it has been reported repeatedly in the Ebro Delta (Ballesteros et al., 2016), in the Mar Menor (Izquierdo-Muñoz et al. [in] Nicolaidou et al., 2012), in Roquetas de Mar , Almería (Ibáñez-Yuste et al., 2012) and in various locations in Catalonia where, in addition to the Ebro Delta, it has been cited in L’Ametlla de Mar, Vilanova i la Geltrú, Cubelles and, starting in 2016, in the bathing area of ​​the Barcelona Forum, where there has been a stable population since then. Specimens have also been observed in Creixell, Tarragona (Carles San Vicente, personal communication). It is expected that, if the “tropicalization” process of the Mediterranean Sea continues, this species will also be able to colonize the northern coast of Catalonia, especially the Costa Brava, where the water temperature in winter drops below 15ºC, that is considered the minimum for the presence of stable populations.

With all the data from the records in Table II, it is verified that B. leachii has a great capacity to colonize very extensive marine areas of temperate or warm waters. In the near future, the effects of climate change on the oceans may further favor the expansion of the species in coastal areas where it has not yet been recorded.

Table II. Known records of Bursatella leachii worldwide.

LocalityObserver, Museum (or Online reference)Year  Month  Day
Krusadai Island, IndiaIndOBIS (2022)181772
Red Sea (as B. savigniana)Audouin (1826)1826
Antilles, Caribbean Sea (as B. pleii)Rang 1828)1828
Red Sea (as Notarchus laciniatus)Rüppert & Leuckart (1830)1830
Mauritius, Indian Ocean (as Aplysia cirrhifera)Quoy & Gaimard (1832)1832
Brazil (as Bursatella lacinulata)Gould (1852)1852
China Sea and Japan, Western Pacific Ocean (as Notarchus cirrosus)W. Stimpson (1855)1855
New Zealand, South Pacific (as Aclesia glauca)Cheeseman (1878)1878
Kingston Harbor, South of, JamaicaUnited States Fish Commission, GBIF (2022)1884311
Jamaica, Western Atlantic (as Notarchus intrapictus)Cockerell (1893)1893
Red Sea (as Notarchus brevipes)Hägg (1904)1904
Philippines, Western Pacific (as Aclesia freeri)L. E. Griffin (1912)1912
South Africa (as Aclesia africana)Engel (1926)1926
Western Africa, Eastern Atlantic (as Aclesia rosea)Engel (1926)1926
South Africa (as Notarchus villosus)O´Donoghue (1929)1929
Australia (as Ramosaclesia rex)J. K. Allan (1932)1932
Hillsborough County, Florida, USAYale Peabody Museum - Invertebrate Zoology, GBIF (2022)1932329
Japan (as Bursatella leachii hirasei)Eales & Engel (1935)1935
Toroneos Kolpos, GreeceKoukouras (2000), OBIS (2022)193772
Triglia, Nea Propontida, GreeceKoukouras (2000), OBIS (2022)193772
Jupiter, Florida, USALyman, F. B., Florida Museum of Natural History - Invertebrate Zoology, GBIF (2022)1938520
Angourie Point, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)194097
Israel, Eastern MeditraneanO´Donoghue & White (1940)1940
Haifa Bay, Israel, Western MediterraneanEales (1970); Barash & Danin (1971)1955
Flinders, Victòria, AustràliaMuseums Victoria - Marine Invertebrates Collection195832
Mascot, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)195872
Lara, Antalya, Turkey, Eastern MediterraneanSwennen, 19611959425
Plettenberg Bay, South AfricaF.H. Zalbot, GBIF (2022)1961130
TurkeyZenetos et al. (2003)1961
S of Nature's Valley, South AfricaIziko South African Museum - Mollusc Collection, OBIS (2022)196172
Lakeside, Capetown, South AfricaIziko South African Museum - Mollusc Collection, OBIS (2022)1964915
Eden, NSW, AustràliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, GBIF (2022)196611
Goodwood Island, NSW, AustràliaF.Ryan Chatsworth, Australian Museum - Malacology, GBIF (2022)196711
Nadgee, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)1967425
Guajira Peninsula, Off Puerto Estrella, ColombiaUnited States National Museums - Invertebrate Zoology, GBIF (2022)1968728
Myora, Queensland, AustraliaBebbington (1977)1968624
Muizenberg, South AfricaIziko South African Museum - Mollusc Collection, OBIS (2022)1968915
Ghana, Eastern Atlantic (as Bursatella leachii guineensis)Bebbington (1969)1969
Carrabelle, Florida, USAAcademy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Malacology, GBIF (2022)1970130
Malta, Central MediterraneanBebbington (1970)1970
Carrabelle, Florida, USAAcademy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Malacology, OBIS (2022)197072
Israel, Eastern MeditraneanBarash & Danin (1971)1971
Galeta Island, Colón, PanamáUnited States National Museums - Invertebrate Zoology, GBIF (2022)1971119
Royal National Park, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)1972924
Micalo Island, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)19721018
Canada Island, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)1973626
Shoal Bay, N of Darwin, NT, AustraliaMuseum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory - Malacology Collection197389
Chios (north Aegean Islands), Greece, Western MediterraneanBarash & Danin (1986)1975
off Bardawil Lake (Northern Sinai), Egypt, western MediterraneanBarash & Danin (1977)1975
Tin Can Bay, QLD, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)19761022
Watsons Bay, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)1977219
Salamina (Saronikos), Greece, Western MediterraneanBarash & Danin (1986)1977
Golfo di Taranto, Italy, Central MediterraneanTortorici & Panetta (1977)1977
Royal National Park, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)1978917
Baia di Santa Panaglia, Siclia Island, Italy, Western MeditrraneanPiani (1980)1978
Golfo di Palermo, Sicily Island, Italy, Western MediterraneanCatalano &Parrinello (1978)1978
Watsons Bay, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)1979820
Ashqelon, Israel, Western MediterraneanGil Gat, OPK (2022)1979928
Angourie Point, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)1979106
Capo San Vito, Golfo di Taranto, Italy, Central MediterraneanPalazzi & Baccolini (1980)1980
Mar Piccolo, Golfo di Taranto, Italy, Central MediterraneanBello (1982)1981
San Juan Beach, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Eastern AtlanticMoro et al. (2016)19828
Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia, Western MediterraneanAntit et al. (2011)1982
Bari Harbor, ItalyVaccarella and Pastorelli (1983) in Zenetos et al. (2016)198211
North Stradbroke Island, QLD, AustràliaQueensland Museum Molluscs - Marine records, OBIS (2022)1982414
South Adriatic SeaVaccarella y Pastorelli 19831983
S. Padre Is. Texas, United StatesD. Hockaday, Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection - Marine Invertebrates, GBIF (2022)1983712
Bari Harbor, ItalyVaccarella (1986) in Zenetos et al. (2016)198411
Ischia Island, Italy, West ern MediterraneanRusso (1987)1984
Golfo di Napoli, Italy, Western MediterraneanFasulo et al. (1984)1984
Laguna di Venezia, ItalyCesari et al. (1986); Cesari (1990; 1994) in Zenetos et al. (2016)198511
Sorgenti di Aurisina, Trieste, ItalyJaklin and Vio (1989) in Zenetos et al. (2016)198511
Timavo River stuary, Trieste, ItalyJaklin and Vio (1989) in Zenetos et al. (2016)198511
Laguna di Grado-Marano, ItalyJaklin and Vio (1989); De Min and Vio (1998) in Zenetos et al. (2016)198511
Rovinj, CroatiaJaklin and Vio (1989) in Zenetos et al. (2016)198611
Laguna di Venezia, Adiatic Sea, ItalyCesari et al (1986)1986
Lesbos Island, Greece, Eastern MediterraneanBarash & Dain (1986)1986
Margherita di Savoia, ItalyVaccarella (1986) in Zenetos et al. (2016)198611
Harbour Heights, Florida, USAFlorida Museum of Natural History - Invertebrate Zoology, GBIF (2022)1986712
Fukeko, Osaka, JapanRyohei YAMANISHI, Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, GBIF (2022)1986106
Sierra Leone, Western AfricaWirtz, P. (pers. comm)1986
Bird Island, Basin Padre Is., Texas, USAShaver, D., Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection - Marine Invertebrates, GBIF (2022)19871010
Bird Island Basin, Padre Island, Texas, USAChaney and Shaver, Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection - Marine Invertebrates, GBIF (2022)19871019
Canale dei Marani, Venezia, ItalyCesari (1990) in Zenetos et al. (2016)198811
Bird Island Basin, Padre Island, Texas, USAChase Chaney, Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection - Marine Invertebrates, GBIF (2022)198817
Great Mercury Islands, New ZealandAustralian Institute of Marine Science - Bioresources Library, OBIS (2022)1988126
Trieste, Adriatic SeaJaklin & Vio (1989)1989
Cedar Key, Florida, USAR.W. Portell, Florida Museum of Natural History - Invertebrate Zoology, GBIF (2022)1989128
Hvar Island, CroatiaDespalatović et al. 2008 in Zenetos et al. 2016199011
Split, CroatiaDespalatović et al. 2008 in Zenetos et al. 2016199011
Pontal do Sul, BrasilCentro de Estudos do Mar, Universidade Federal do Paraná, OBIS (2022)1990626
Lago Fusaro, Italy, Western MediterraneanVillani & Martínez (1993)1990
Angourie Point, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)19901130
Gulf of Korinthiakos, Greece, Western MditerraneanKoutsoubas (1992)1992
Venezuela, Caribbean SeaCaballet et al. (2015)1993
Baia di Panzano, Trieste, ItalyVio and De Min (1996); De Min and Vio (1998) in Zenetos et al. (2016)199611
Muggia, Trieste, ItalyVio and De Min (1996); De Min and Vio (1998) in Zenetos et al. (2016)199611
S´Arenal de Llucmajor, Mallorca Island, Western MediterraneanOliver & Terrasa (2004)199610
Portixol, Mallorca Island, Western MeditrraneanOliver & Terrasa (2004)19969
Nightcliff reef, Darwin, NT, AustraliaMuseum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory - Malacology Collection199663
Kerkennah Islands, Gulf of Gabes, tunisia, Western MediterraneanEnzenros & Enzenros (2001)1996
Diamond Beach, Serakaki, Okinawa, JapanR.F. Bolland, California Academy of Sciences - Invertebrate Zoology, GBIF (2022)1997611
Lazzaro, Reggio Calabria, ItalyGianni Neto, Medslugs (2022)199811
Laguna di Venezia, ItalyMizzan (1999) in Zenetos et al. (2016)199811
Porto Petro, Mallorca Island, Western MeiterraneanOliver & Terrasa (2004)199810
Xemxija, Malta Island., Central MediterraneanSammut & Perrone (1998)1998
Patres, GreeceMartin Mildenberger, Medslugs (2022)199911
Pellaro, Reggio Calabria, ItalyGianni Neto, Medslugs (2022)200011
Manzanillo, off MINAE, Costa RicaMario Calderon, Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad - Mollusca, GBIF (2022)200046
Ain el-Gazala Lagoon (Tobruch), Lybia, Eastern MediterraneanZgozi et al. (2002) [fide Bazairi et al. (2013)]2000
Beirut Harbor, LebanonCrocetta et al. (2013)200062
Selaata, LebanonCrocetta et al. (2013)20001010
Piran, Marine Biology Station, SloveniaLipej et al. (2008) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200111
Praia do Jabaquara, Ilhabela, São Paulo, BrasilSINBIOTA Marine Data, OBIS (2022)2001424
S of Ilha do Tamanduá, Caraguatatuba, São Paulo, BrasilSINBIOTA Marine Data, OBIS (2022)2001426
Ubatuba, São Paulo, BrasilSINBIOTA Marine Data, OBIS (2022)2002321
Angourie Point, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)2002325
Cedar Key, Florida, USAFlorida Museum of Natural History - Invertebrate Zoology, GBIF (2022)2002108
S´Arenal, Mallorca Island, Western MeiterraneanOliver & Terrasa (2004)20039
Gulf of Korinthiakos, Greece, Eastern MediterraneanDaskos & Zenetos (2007)20035
Lake of Tunis, Tunis, Western MediterraneanBen Souissi et al. (2003)2003
Piran, Marine Biology Station, SloveniaLipej et al. (2008) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200311
Cudjoe Key, Florida, USAFlorida Museum of Natural History - Invertebrate Zoology, GBIF (2022)2004318
Sardinia Island, Italy, Western MeditrraneanZenetos et al. (2004)2004
Lybanon, Eastern MediterraneanZenetos et al. (2004)2004
Balos Cape, Crete, Greece, Eastern MediterraneanDaskos & Zenetos (2007)20047
Fannie Bay, Darwin, NT, AustraliaMuseum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory - Malacology Collection2004912
North Field Island, Kakadu National Park, NT, AustraliaMuseum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory - Malacology Collection20041123
Cape Verde Islands, Eastern AtlanticRolan (2005)2005
Sistiana, Trieste, ItalyBorut Mavric in Zenetos et al. (2016)200611
Portorož (Seča), SloveniaLipej et al. (2008) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200611
Magnetic Island, Townsville, QLD, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)2006228
Matanzas River, Marineland, Florida, USAJose Nunez, iNaturalist - Observations, GBIF (2022)2006119
Golfo di Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, Western MediterraneanOlita (2007)2007
Vrsar Harbor, CroatiaAndrej Jaklin in Zenetos et al. (2016)200711
Miramare, Trieste, ItalyCrocetta et al. (2009); Crocetta (2011) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200711
off Sečovlie, SloveniaLipej et al. (2008) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200711
Piran Harbor, SloveniaLipej et al. (2008) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200711
Strunjan, SloveniaLipej et al. (2008) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200711
Isola della Certosa, Laguna di Venezia, ItalyMizzan and Vianello (2009) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200711
Cesenatico, Emilia-Romagna, ItalyRinaldi (2007; 2008; 2012) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200711
Cesenatico, Emilia-Romagna, ItalyTisselli and Mazziotti (2009) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200711
Strunjan, SloveniaTurk and Furlan (2011) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200711
Ghar El Melh lagoon,, Tunisia, Western MediterraneanZakhama-Sraieb et al. (2007)20074
Badia dels Alfacs. Ebro Delta, Spain, Western MediterraneanWeitzmann et al. (2013)200710
St. George’s Bay, Malta Island, Central MediterraneanSciberras & Schembri (2007)2007
Casuarina Beach, Darwin, NT, AustraliaMuseum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory - Malacology Collection2007630
Izmir Bay, TurkeyKazak & Cavas (2007)20072007
Doroussa (Cyclades Islands)Zenetos et al. (2008)2008
Mar Menor, Spain, Western MediterraneanIzquierdo et al. (2012)20089
Strunjan, SloveniaLipej et al. (2008) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200811
Marina di Ravenna, ItalyTisselli and Mazziotti (2009) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200811
Staoueli-Sidi Fredj, Argelia, Western MediterraeanLamouti & Bachari in Eleftheriou et al. (2011)2008
Archi-Gallico (Reggio Calabria), Italy, Central MediterraneanCrocetta et al. (2009)2008
Western False Bay, South AfricaInvert E Base (2022)200816
Verde Island Passage, PhilippinesInvert E Base (2022)2008321
Ciénaga de Progreso, Chuburná, Yucatán, MéxicoDeneb Ortigosa, iNaturalist - Observations, GBIF (2022)2008417
Wellington Point, QLD, AustràliaQueensland Museum Molluscs - Marine records, OBIS (2022)2008730
Fannie Bay, Darwin, NT, AustraliaMuseum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory - Malacology Collection200896
Moorea, French PolynesiaUniversity of Florida Museum of Natural History, Invertebrate Zoology Collection, OBIS (2022)20081012
Moorea, French PolynesiaUniversity of Florida Museum of Natural History, Invertebrate Zoology Collection, OBIS (2022)20081017
Potamos - Epanomi (Thessaloniki), Greece, Western MediterraneanManousis et al. (2012)2008
Moorea, French PolynesiaUniversity of Florida Museum of Natural History, Invertebrate Zoology Collection, OBIS (2022)2008114
Boka Kotorska Bay (Sv. Nedelja), MontenegroMačić and Kljajić (2012) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200911
Boka Kotorska Bay (near Bijela), MontenegroZenetos et al. (2011) in Zenetos et al. (2016)200911
Crete Island, Greece, Western MediterraneanPoursanidis et al. (2009)2009
Gulf of MexicoFelder & Camp (2009)2009
Cook's Bay, Moorea, French PolynesiaCory Pittman, Florida Museum of Natural History - Invertebrate Zoology, GBIF (2022)20091121
I Filtri, Trieste, ItalyCrocetta et al. (2009); Crocetta (2011) in Zenetos et al. (2016)201011
Punta Olmi, Muggia, ItalyCrocetta et al. (2009); Crocetta (2011) in Zenetos et al. (2016)201011
Lesser AntillesMiiloslavich et al. (21010)2010
Cuba, Caribbean SeaMiiloslavich et al. (21010)2010
Venezuela, Caribbean SeaMiiloslavich et al. (21010)2010
Puerto Rico, Caribbean SeaMiiloslavich et al. (21010)2010
Mar Menor, Spain, Western MediterraneanIzquierdo et al (2012)20101
Colombia, Caribbean SeaMiiloslavich et al. (21010)2010
Olbia (Sassari), Sardegna Island, Italy, Western MediterrsaneanDoneddu (2010)2010
Lago Faro (Messina), Italy, Central MediterraneanVitale et al. (2016)2010
Portorož (Seča), SloveniaL. Lipej in Zenetos et al. (2016)201011
Donsol, Sorsogon, PhilippinesTerry Gosliner, iNaturalist Observations, GBIF (2022)2010212
Moorea, French PolynesiaUniversity of Florida Museum of Natural History, Invertebrate Zoology Collection, OBIS (2022)20101111
Boka Kotorska Bay (Zelenika), MontenegroBranislav Lazarevic In Zenetos et al. (2016)201111
Ankaran, SloveniaL. Lipej in Zenetos et al. (2016)201111
Portorož (Seča), SloveniaL. Lipej in Zenetos et al. (2016)201111
Škocjanski zatok, SloveniaL. Lipej in Zenetos et al. (2016)201111
Piran Harbor, SloveniaL. Lipej in Zenetos et al. (2016)201211
Portorož (Seča), SloveniaL. Lipej in Zenetos et al. (2016)201211
Ile de NGor, SenegalWirtz, P. (pers. comm)2012
Staoueli-Sidi Fredj, Argelia, Western MediterraeanLamouti & Bachari in Eleftheriou et al. (2011)2011
Vilanova i la Geltrú, Spain, Western MediterraneanBallesteros & Weitzmann (2016)2011
Forum bathing Area, Barcelona, Spain, Western MediterraneanBallesteros & Weitzmann (2016)2012
Kalkan (Antalya), Turkiye, Western MeiterraneanYokeş et al. (2012)2012
Roquetas de Mar, Almería, SpainIbáñez-Yuste et al. (2012)2012221
Darwin Sailing Club, Fannie Bay, Darwin, NT, AustraliaMuseum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory - Malacology Collection2012530
Boka Kotorska Bay (Dobrota), MontenegroMačić (2013) in Zenetos et al. (2016)201311
Boka Kotorska Bay (Verige), MontenegroMačić (2013) in Zenetos et al. (2016)201311
Burrill Lake, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)2013516
Vloa Bay, Albania, Adriatic SeaXharahi et al. In Gerovasileiou et al. (2017)2013
Croatia, Adriatic SeaPecarevic et al. (2013)2013
El-Kouf National Park, Cyrenaica, Lybia, Western MediterraneanBazairi et al (2013)2013
Lebanon, Eastern MediterraneanBitar (2013)2013
Vlora Bay, Albania, South AdriaticXharahi et al. (in Gerovasileiou et al, 2017)2013
Port, La Ràpita, Tarragona, SpainGuillem Mas, GROC (2022)2013106
Pottsville Beach, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)201432
Kingscliff, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)201433
Anilao Pier, PhilippinesCarissa Shipman, California Academy of Sciences - Invertebrate Zoology, GBIF (2022)201456
Cagnes-sur-mer, France, Western MediterraneanRiondy et al. (2017)2014
Verde Island Passage coast, off Lago de Oro Hotel, PhilippinesDaisuke Uyeno, California Academy of Sciences - Invertebrate Zoology, GBIF (2022)2014513
Stari Trogir, Sevid, CroatiaJakov Prkić, OPK (2022)20141115
Navarre Beach, Navarre, Florida, USAChuck Sexton, iNaturalist - Observations, GBIF (2022)2015627
Mare Grande, Taranto, ItalyGianfranco Alemanno, OPK (2022)201591
Térmica de Cubelles, Barcelona, SpainPablo Ruiz, GROC (2022)2015910
Badia dels Alfacs (Port de la Ràpita)Xavier Salvador, GROC (2022)2015924
Fusaro Lagoon, Bacoli, Naples, ItalyGuido Villani, European Sea Slugs Reports (2022)2015101
Platja de Casablanca, La Ràpita, Tarragona, SpainNeus Sanmartí, OPK (2022)20151125
Itea, Korinthiakos Gulf, GreeceNassos Drosopoulos, Underwater Photography in Greece (2022)2015121
Bocas del Toro, Panamá, Caribbean SeaGoodheart et al (2016)20158
Jeannette Kawas National Park, Honduras, Caribbean SeaCaviedes et al. (2019)2015
Chachaguala lagoon, Honduras, Caribbean SeaCaviedes et al. (2019)2015
Pulicat Lake, East India, Indic OceanSethi et al. (2015)2015
Henderson Bay, Northland, New ZealandTangatawhenua, iNaturalist Observations, GBIF (2022)20151215
Henderson Bay, Northland, New ZealandTangatawhenua, iNaturalist Observations, GBIF (2022)2016124
Kašuni, Split, CroatiaJakov Prkić, OPK (2022)201631
Kašuni, Split, CroatiaJakov Prkić, OPK (2022)201634
Kašuni, Split, CroatiaJakov Prkić, OPK (2022)201643
Marchica Lagoon, Morocco, Western MediterraneanSelfati et al. (2017)2016
Spiaggia di San Vito, Taranto, ItalyGiacinto Ribezzo, Mare Nostrum Wildlife (2022)2016424
Girne, Kyrenia, CyprusAlper Karabacak in Lipej et al. (2018)2016816
Moll de Les Salines, La Ràpita, Tarragona, SpainJosep Pepio, GROC (2022)2016917
Forum bathing area, Barcelona, SpainParera et al. (2020)20171123
Coves de Cala Masset, Sant Feliu de Guíxols, Girona, SpainXavier Salvador, GROC (2022)20171125
Forum bathing area, Barcelona, SpainParera et al. (2020)20171125
Forum bathing area, Barcelona, SpainParera et al. (2020)2017125
Forum bathing area, Barcelona, SpainParera et al. (2020)2017124
Forum bathing area, Barcelona, SpainParera et al. (2020)201823
Forum bathing area, Barcelona, SpainParera et al. (2020)2018427
Forum bathing area, Barcelona, SpainParera et al. (2020)2018516
Forum bathing area, Barcelona, SpainParera et al. (2020)2018620
Forum bathing area, Barcelona, SpainParera et al. (2020)2018821
Forum bathing area, Barcelona, SpainParera et al. (2020)2018915
Forum bathing area, Barcelona, SpainParera et al. (2020)20191120
Platja de Calafat, L'Ametlla de Mar, Tarragona, SpainPlancton divulgacio i serveis marins, GROC (2022)20201010
Forum bathing area, Barcelona, SpainMuestreo mensual proyecto DIVA-2 (julio 2023) available at https://vidamarina.info/?p=59502023715
Angourie Point, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)
Rose Bay, NSW, AustràliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)
Goodwood Island, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)
Eden, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, OBIS (2022)
N of Tizimin, Yucatán, MexicoBiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
Río Lagartos, Yucatán, MexicoBiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
Ciudad Madero, Tamaulipas, MexicoBiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
NW of Key West, Florida, USABiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
E of Tampico, MexicoBiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
N of Sandino, CubaBiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
NE of Coatzacoalcos, MexicoBiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USABiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
Tonalá, Veracruz, MexicoBiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
Lake Lorraine, Florida, USABiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
S of Hulburt Field, Florida, USABiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
W of Sarasota, Florida, USABiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
SE of Corpus Christi, Texas, USABiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
Cortez, Florida, USABiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
Hackberry Beach, Louisiana, USABiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
S of Louisiana, USABiodiversity of the Gulf of Mexico Database, OBIS (2022)
Krusadai Island, IndiaIndOBIS (2022)
Sandbaai, South AfricaIziko South African Museum - Mollusc Collection, OBIS (2022)
Thermaic Gulf, Triglia, GreeceOBIS (2022)
Toroneos Kolpos, GreeceOBIS (2022)
Wollongong City Beach, NSW, AustraliaMuseums Victoria - Marine Invertebrates Collection
E of Bilagiri, NigeriaNigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, OBIS (2022)
Chios Island, GreeceBarash and Danin (1986) in Koutsoubas and Cinelli (1997)
Mytilini Island, GreeceBarash and Danin (1986) in Koutsoubas and Cinelli (1997)
Salamina Island, GreeceBarash and Danin (1986) in Koutsoubas and Cinelli (1997)
Thermailkos Gulf, GreeceKoutsoubas and Voultsiadou-Koukoura (1991) in Koutsoubas and Cinelli (1997)
Thermailkos Gulf, GreeceKoutsoubas, 1992 in Koutsoubas and Cinelli (1997)
Angourie Point, NSW, AustraliaAustralian Museum Malacology Collection, GBIF (2022)
Amuay, Falcón, VeneçuelaAcademy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Malacology, GBIF (2022)
Lafayette ct, Florida, USAAcademy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Malacology, GBIF (2022)
Boca Ciega Bay, Tampa, United StatesAcademy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Malacology, GBIF (2022)
Swartkop Estuary, Port Elizabeth, South AfricaAcademy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Malacology, GBIF (2022)
Tomioka, Kyushu, JapanAcademy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Malacology, GBIF (2022)
Gallico Marina, Reggio Calabria, ItalyCrocetta et al. (2009)
Reggio Calabria Airport, ItalyCrocetta et al. (2009)
Reggio Calabria Harbour, Candeloro Reggio Calabria, ItalyCrocetta et al. (2009)
Toroneos Kolpos, GreeceDepartment of Zoology, Aristote Zoological Museum, GBIF (2022)
Thermaic Gulf, Triglia, GrèciaDepartment of Zoology, Aristote Zoological Museum, GBIF (2022)
Capo S. Vito, Taranto, ItalyFurfaro et al. (2020)
Marina Mancaversa, Lecce, ItalyFurfaro et al. (2020)
Santa Maria di Leuca, Lecce, ItalyFurfaro et al. (2020)
Mar Piccolo, Taranto, ItalyFurfaro et al. (2020)
Torre Pedrera, Rimini, ItalyBiologia Marina (2022)
Idrelac, Pašman Island, CroatiaJakov Prkić, OPK (2022)
Lake Worth Lagoon, West Palm Beach, Florida, USAJaxShells (2022)
Izola, SloveniaLipej et al. (2008)
Krusadai Island, IndiaIndOBIS (2022)
Plettenberg Bay, South AfricaSouth Africa Museum Cape, GBIF (2022)
Klein River Lagoon Hermanus, South AfricaU C T Ecological Survey, South Africa Museum Cape, GBIF (2022)
Richards Bay Cape Province, South AfricaU C T Ecological Survey, South Africa Museum Cape, GBIF (2022)
St Lucia Estuary, South AfricaU C T Ecological Survey, South Africa Museum Cape, GBIF (2022)

 

Publications of the original descriptions of the synonyms

  • Bursatella leachii guineensis Bebbington A. (1969)Bursatella leachi guineensis subsp. nov. (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) from Ghana. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 38: 323-341.  Cited in Ghana
  • Aplysia cirrhifera Quoy & Gaimard, 1832 – Quoy, J. R. C. & Gaimard, J. P. (1832-1835). Voyage de la corvette l’Astrolabe : exécuté par ordre du roi, pendant les années 1826-1827-1828-1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Zoologie. 1: i-l, 1-264; 2(1): 1-321 [1832]; 2(2): 321-686 [1833]; 3(1): 1-366 [1834]; 3(2): 367-954 [1835]; 4 [1833]; Atlas (Mollusques): pls 1-93 [1833] …etc. Paris: Tastu. In: Dumont d’Urville, J.; 1834, Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Paris, J. Tastu, Éditeur-Imprimeur., available online at https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.2132 page(s): 311–312, pl. 24 fig. 8  Cited in Mauritius
  • Bursatella savigniana Audouin, 1826 – Audouin V. (1826) Explication sommaire des planches de Mollusques de l’Egypte et de la Syrie publiées par J.C. Savigny. in: Description de l’Egypte ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont été faites en Egypte pendant l’expédition de l’armée française, publié par les ordres de sa majesté l’empereur Napoléon le grand. Histoire Naturelle, Animaux invertébrés 1(4): 7-56. Paris: Imprimerie impériale., available online at https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/jomard1809bd5_1_1/0548 page(s): 17-18   Cited in the Red Sea
  • Aclesia glauca Cheeseman, 1878 Cheeseman, T.F. (1878). Descriptions of three new species of opisthobranchiate Mollusca from New Zealand. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1878: 275–277. page(s): 277, pl. 15 fig. 4   Cited in New Zealand
  • Notarchus laciniatus Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830 Rüppell, E. & Leuckart, F. S. (1828-1830). Mollusca. In: Atlas zu der Reise im nordlichen Afrika von Eduard Rüppell. Neue wirbellose Thiere des Rothen Meeres. Frankfurt, H. L. Brönner. pp. 15-22, pls 4-6 [1828]; pp. 23-47, pls 7-12 [1830]. , available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/37140891
    page(s): 24-25, Plate 7, Figures 2 a-c  Cited in the Red Sea
  • Bursatella lacinulata A. Gould, 1852 Gould, A. A. (1852). Mollusca and shells. In: United States Exploring Expedition during the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842 under the command of Charles Wilkes. Boston. 12: 1-510; atlas 1856: 1-16., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10991152  page(s): 223–224, pl. 16, figs 269-269a Cited in Brazil
  • Aclesia africana Engel, 1926 – Engel H. (1926). Drei neue Arten der Gattung Aclesia (Rang) Bergh, 1902. Zoologischer Anzeiger. 69: 180-187. page(s): 180–184, figs 11–14   Cited in South Africa
  • Aclesia rosea Engel, 1926  – Engel H. (1926). Drei neue Arten der Gattung Aclesia (Rang) Bergh, 1902. Zoologischer Anzeiger. 69: 180-187. page(s): 184–185, figs 15–16   Cited in Western Africa
  • Aplysia pleii Rang, 1828 Rang, S. (1828). Histoire naturelle des Aplysiens. Paris: Firmin Didot. 83 pp. 24 pls. , available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/14983674  page(s): 70, pl. 21 figs 2-4 Cited in the Antilles
  • Notarchus intrapictus Cockerell, 1893 – Cockerell, T. D. A. (1893). On a new species of Aplysiidae from Jamaica. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. ser. 6, 11(63): 218–220., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/24344548 Cited in Jamaica
  • Notarchus cirrosus W. Stimpson, 1855 Stimpson, W. (1855). Descriptions of some of the new Marine Invertebrata from the Chinese and Japanese Seas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 7(10): 375-384., available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/26299600  page(s): 378 Cited in the China Sea and Japan
  • Aclesia freeri L. E. Griffin, 1912 Griffin L.E. (1912). The anatomy of Aclesia freeri new species. The Philippine Journal of Science. section D, 7(2): 65–90, pls 1-6., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/34354225  Cited in Philippines
  • Ramosaclesia rex J. K. Allan, 1932 Allan, J.K. (1932). A new genus and species of sea-slug, and two new species of sea-hares from Australia. Records of the Australian Museum. 18(6): 314–320, pls 34-35. page(s): 317–319, pl. 35 figs 1–6 Cited in Australia
  • Notarchus villosus O’Donoghue, 1929 O’Donoghue, C. H. (1929). Opisthobranchiate Mollusca collected by the South African Marine Biological Survey. Union of South Africa. Fisheries & Marine Biological Survey Report No. 7 for the year ending June 1929. pp. 1-84, pls. 1-8. Special Reports No. 1. page(s): 25–30, pl. 3 figs 27–32. Cited in South Africa
  • Notarchus brevipes Hägg, 1904 Hägg R. (1904). Two new Opisthobranchiathe Mollusca from the Red Sea. In: L. A. Jägerskiöld (ed.), Results of the Swedish Zoological Expedition to Egypt and the White Nile 1901 under the direction of L. A. Jägerskiöld, Part 1: 1–16, pl. 1. page(s): 1–5, pl. 1 figs 1–3 Cited in the Red Sea
  • Bursatella leachii hirasei Eales & Engel, 1935 Eales, N. & Engel, H. 1935. The genus Bursatella De Blainville. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 21: 279-303, plate 31. page(s): 298  Cited in Japan

Bibliography

Note: to shorten the extensive list of citations in the locations table, bibliographic citations that appear in more general ones are considered included in the latter.

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NOTES:

Cite this article as:

Pontes, M. & Ballesteros, M. (2023) "Bursatella leachii Blainville, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia), a successful global sea hare" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 26/12/2023. Accessed: 02/03/2024. Available at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/?p=42720)

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