Limacina helicina

Limacina helicina (Phipps, 1774)

Limacina helicina by Alexander Semenov


  • Argonauta arctica Fabricius O., 1780
  • Clio helicina Phipps, 1774 (original)
  • Limacina helicialis Lamarck, 1819
  • Spiratella helicina (Phipps, 1774)
  • Spiratella limacina de Blainville, 1824
  • Spiratella planospira Rehder, 1942




  • Limacina, diminutive of Latin “limacia”, from Latin “limax”, slimy, viscous.
  • Helicina, diminutive of Latin “helica”, from Greek “helyx”, helical, spiral.


Known georeferenced records of the species: Limacina helicina
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions


    Western Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Eastern Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Atlantic Ocean: ★★★★☆

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Limacina helicina based on our own records.


Limacina helicina swimming

More pictures


    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2023. OPK - Opistobranquis. (
    Cervera, J. L., G. Calado, C. Gavaia, M. A. E. Malaquías, J. Templado, M. Ballesteros, J. C. García-Gómez, and C. Megina. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
    García-Gómez, J. C., J. L. Cervera, F. J. García, J. A. Ortea, S. F. García-Martin, A. Medina, and L. P. Burnay. 1991. Resultados de la campaña internacional de biología marina “Algarve 88”: moluscos opistobranquios. Bollettino Malacologico 27 (5-9): 125-138.
    Hidalgo, J. C. 1917. Fauna malacológica de España, Portugal y las Baleares. Trabajos del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Serie Zoología (Madrid) 30: 752 pp.
    Kobayashi, H. A. 1974. Growth cycle and related vertical distribution of the thecosomatous pteropod Spiratella ('Limacina’) helicina in the central Arctic Ocean. Mar. Biol., 26: 295301.
    Long, S. J. 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
    McDonald, G. 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia. 2nd Online Edition, Annotated. 1072 pp  Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz. (
    McGowan, J. A. 1963. Geographical variation in Limacina helicina in the North Pacific. Syst. Ass. Publ., 5 (Speciation in the sea): 109128, 14 figs.
    Paranjape, M. A. 1968. The egg mass and veligers of Limacina helicina Phipps. Veliger 10: 322326.
    Phipps, C. J. 1774. A voyage towards the North Pole undertaken by His Majesty’s Command 1773 : i-viii, 1-253.
    Shkoldina, L. S. 1999. Contribution to the taxonomy of the pteropod Limacina helicina from the Sea of Okhotsk. Biologiya Morya 25 (4) : 299-305.
    Shkoldina, L. S. 1999. Vertical distribution of the pteropod Limacina helicina in the Sea of Okhotsk during the summer. Biologya Morya, Vladivostok 25(5):344-354.
    WoRMS Editorial Board. 2023. World Register of Marine Species. WoRMS. (

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, M., Madrenas, E. & Pontes, M. (2023) "Limacina helicina" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 16/10/2014. Accessed: 01/06/2023. Available at (

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