Philinopsis depicta

Philinopsis depicta (Renier, 1807)

Philinopsis depicta by Enric Madrenas

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Tectipleura  

 

Order

Cephalaspidea  

 

Superfamily

Philinoidea  

 

Family

Aglajidae  

 

Genus

Philinopsis  

 

Species

Philinopsis depicta  (Renier, 1807)

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 138733).
Synonyms

  • Aglaja depicta Renier, 1807 (original)
  • Aglaja pelsunca Ev. Marcus & Er. Marcus, 1966
  • Bulla carnosa Cuvier, 1810 (synonym)
  • Doridium aplysiaeforme Delle Chiaje, 1825
  • Doridium aplysiforme Delle Chiaje, 1825
  • Doridium carnosum (Cuvier, 1810)
  • Doridium coriaceum Meckel, 1809
  • Eidothea marmorata Risso, 1826
  • Melanochlamys depicta (Renier, 1807)

Description
This species can reach a size of up to 60 mm in length. Although variable in coloration, most specimens are dark brown with numerous tiny rounded white spots or larger and irregular shaped spots, their density changing from an specimen to another. However in some animals the color is almost black or reddish brown with little white scores. The head shield is well developed and occupies the anterior half of the body, its anterior border is decorated by an orange band and can also show two longitudinal stripes of the same color, that can be discontinuous. The mantle ends in two rounded lobes without flagellum. The parapodia are relatively short and left uncovered much of the head shield and mantle. The white spots are also present on the outer face of the parapodia. The trailing edge of the head shield, the posterior parapodia and mantle lobes are fringed with a thin line of blue pigment and a wider band of orange. The foot is dark brown, almost black, and has a faint bluish iridescence giving it a velvety appearance, in the anterior zone it widens a little, forming the two rounded lobes.

Biology
P. depicta lives on soft sand bottoms, or sand and mud bottoms where it can burrow itself to search for food. When animals are roaming on the substrate they usually lift the back of the head shield. This species is a voracious predator of invertebrates and even other species of opisthobranchs, which captures by projecting its bucal bulb outwards and swallowing the prey whole. It has been cited that feeds among other cephalaspidean species of Bulla striata and Haminoea sp. and some of the smaller species of Aglaja.

Etymology

  • Philinopsis. From Latin, means “similar to Philine“, where Philine is another genus of Cephalaspideans.
  • Philine. Derived from Greek “philainoi”, name of two Carthaginian brothers who fougth for their homeland and who received honors as Gods.
  • Depicta, derived from Latin word “picta”, for painted.

Distribution
It is essentially a Mediterranean species, having been cited in both the eastern and western basin. Outside the Mediterranean it has been observed in the Bahamas and the Canary Islands. In the Iberian Peninsula it is cited in Portugal, the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of Andalusia and the Eastern coast of Valencia. In Catalonia it is found in the sandy Ebro delta and on trawling grounds in front of Blanes.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Philinopsis depicta
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

References for the species: Philinopsis depicta

    Portugal: Calado (unpubl. data). Andalucía (Atl.): Templado et al. (1993b). Andalucía (Med.): Moreno and Templado (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). Levante: Marín and Ros (1987, as Aglaja), Martínez et al. (1993). Catalunya: Ros (1975, 1978, citada como Doridium carnosum), Ballesteros (1983), Martínez et al. (1993). Canarias: Ortea and Moro (1998b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003).

    Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007 & 2016, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:0 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:0 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Philinopsis depicta based on our own records.

Videos

Opistobranquios de arena

Cruce de dos opistobranquios de arena Philinopsis depictahttp://litoraldegranada.ugr.es/el-litoral/el-litoral-sumergido/fauna/moluscos/gasteropodos/opistobranquios/orden-cephalaspidea/philinopsis-depicta/

Publiée par Litoral de Granada sur Vendredi 25 mai 2018

 

More pictures

Bibliography

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    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2016. Actualización del catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira 6(2016): 1-28.
    Ballesteros, M., M. Pontes, and E. Madrenas. 2015. Opisthobranch from Medes Islands (Marine Protected Area, Costa Brava, Catalonia, NE Spain): 40 years of study.
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2019. OPK - Opistobranquis. (https://opistobranquis.info/).
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    Cervera, J. L., G. Calado, C. Gavaia, M. A. E. Malaquías, J. Templado, M. Ballesteros, J. C. García-Gómez, and C. Megina. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
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    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes (2012-2019) "Philinopsis depicta" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 14/05/2012, Accessed: 12/12/2019 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/IvhZk)

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