Clione limacina

Clione limacina (Phipps, 1774)

Clione limacina by Alexander Semenov

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Tectipleura  

 

Order

Pteropoda  

 

Suborder

Gymnosomata  

 

Superfamily

Clionoidea  

 

Family

Clionidae  

 

Genus

Clione  

 

Species

Clione limacina  (Phipps, 1774)

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 139178).
Synonyms

  • Clio borealis (Pallas, 1774)
  • Clio limacina Phipps, 1774 (original)
  • Clio miquelonensis Rang, 1825
  • Clione anctartica Smith E.A., 1902
  • Clione borealis Pallas, 1774 
  • Clione dalli Krause, 1885 
  • Clione elegantissima Dall, 1871 
  • Clione filifera Pruvot-Fol, 1926 
  • Clione gracilis Massy, 1909 
  • Clione kinkaidi Agersborg, 1923 
  • Clione limacina var. meridionalis Pruvot-Fol, 1926 
  • Clione limacina var. typica Meisenheimer, 1906 
  • Clione minuta Pruvot-Fol, 1926 
  • Clione papilionacea Jeffreys, 1869 
  • Trichocyclus dumerilii Eschscholtz, 1825

Description
This species of gimnosomate is usually 10 to 15 mm long, although there are citations of specimens living in cold waters that reach more than 5 cm long. The body shape is elongated, with a distinctive anterior zone or head, a neck, the body and a small rear zone. The body is translucent but the pink-orange viscera give the animal these colors. The head is broad and has two lobes, with a mouth opening in a groove between the two lobes and where several round bumps (buccal cones) could be observed. The head has a pair of short retractile rhinophores and continues with a sort of retractile neck. The dominant color of the head and neck is pink. The body is elongated but contractile, with a rounded anterior margin and becoming thinner towards the back. In the middle section of the body there is a slightly apparent constriction with ciliated cells forming a ciliated crown all around the body. Inside the body there could be seen, by transparency, the reddish gut and other creamy-white viscera that occupy two-thirds of the body space while the final third is empty, with no viscera. In the head and body there are semitransparent spherical granules, mainly concentrated in the anterior region of the body. The ventral area of ​​the body has two thin, semitransparent, longitudinally striated, swimming fins attached, also contractile. The foot is a small ventral surface located between the two triangular fins and has two lobulations somewhat wider. The rear end of the body or caudal cone has a widened anterior lip and its cells have long cilia in constant motion. Inside the caudal cone there are also bright spherules.

Biology
Clione limacina is the most abundant gimnosomate in the surface plankton of temperate and polar waters, becoming an important food source for whales and certain fishes. It is a monophage species that feeds specifically of thecosomata of the genus Limacina: L. helicina in the cold Arctic and Antarctic waters and of L.retroversa in temperate waters of both hemispheres. They capture their food by evaginating their buccal cones and holding their preys with them. Inside the body there are abundant lipid granules, visible as bright spherules, synthesized by the animal, that are very important as an energy resource for reproduction and survival during the winter months, where there is little food. The mating of two individuals of C. limacina is achieved by joining their ventral parts, and fertilization is reciprocal. Some authors suggest that their lifespan is no less than two years.

Etymology

  • Clione. From Greek “kleio”, Ocean’s daughter and sister of Beroe. 
  • Limacina. Diminutive of Limacia. Slug, slimy.

Distribution
This gimnosomate has a polar distribution. It is considered that there are two subspecies, C. limacina limacina living in the northern hemisphere (both Atlantic and Pacific), between North pole and 40°N and subspecies C. limacina antarctica living in the southern hemisphere that until recently was considered a separate species (Clione antarctica). In the Iberian Peninsula has been cited in the Portuguese coast and in Catalonia it has been found over the continental shelf, off the Garraf coast.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Clione limacina
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

References for the species: Clione limacina

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:3 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Clione limacina based on our own records.

Videos

 

More pictures


Bibliography

    Abbott, R. T. 1974. American seashells. The marine mollusca of the Atlantic and Pacific coast of North America. Van Nostrand, New York. 663 pp., 24 pls. [October 1974].
    Agersborg, H. P. 1923. Gymnosomatous Pteropoda from Friday Harbor, Washington. Annales des Sciences Naturelles (10) 6: 391-402.
    Arshavsky, Y. I., T. G. Deliagina, I. M. Gelfand, G. N. Orlovsky, Y. V. Panchin, G. A. Pavlova, and L. B. Popova. 1990. Neural control of heart beat in the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina, coordination of circulatory and locomotor systems. J. Exper. Biol., 148: 461-476.
    Arshavsky, Y. I., G. N. Gamkrelidze, G. N. Orlovskii, PanchinYu.V, and L. B. Popova. 1991. Role of gamma aminobutyric acid in the organization of feeding behavior of the pteropod mollusk Clione limacina. Dokl. Akad. Nauk S S.S.R., 317(6): 1500-1503.
    Ballesteros, M. 2007. Lista actualizada de los opistobranquios (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira. 2: 163–188.
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2019. OPK - Opistobranquis. (https://opistobranquis.info/).
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2016. Actualización del catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira 6(2016): 1-28.
    Breemen, P. J. v. 1907. Voorkomen van Clione limacina nabij den mond van de Humber, Febr. 1906. Tijdschr. Nederl. Dier. Ver., (2)10: xxiv.
    Cervera, J. L., G. Calado, C. Gavaia, M. A. E. Malaquías, J. Templado, M. Ballesteros, J. C. García-Gómez, and C. Megina. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
    Conover, R. J., and C. M. Lalli. 1972. Feeding and growth in Clione limacina (Phipps), a pteropod mollusc. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol., 9: 279-302, 8 figs.
    Dadon, J. R., and S. F. Chauvin. 1998. Distribution and abundance of gymnosomata (Gastropoda : Opisthobranchia) in the southwest Atlantic. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 64: 345–354.
    Flanders Marine Institute. 2018. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase: Territorial Seas. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase. (http://www.marineregions.org/).
    García-Gómez, J. C., J. L. Cervera, F. J. García, J. A. Ortea, S. F. García-Martin, A. Medina, and L. P. Burnay. 1991. Resultados de la campaña internacional de biología marina “Algarve 88”: moluscos opistobranquios. Bollettino Malacologico 27 (5-9): 125-138.
    Gosner, K. L. 1971. Guide to identification of marine and estuarine invertebrates: Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 693 p.
    Hermans, C. O., and R. A. Satterlie. 1992. Fast-strike feeding behavior in a pteropod mollusk, Clione limacina Phipps. Biol. Bull. 182: 1-7, 4 figs.
    Jeffreys, J. G. 1862. British Conchology. London, van Voorst : Vol. 1: pp. CXIV + 341 [1862]. Vol. 2: pp. 479 [1864] Il frontrespizio reca la data 1863 ma in effetti pubblicato nel 1864. Vol. 3: pp. 394 [1865]. Vol. 4: pp. 487 [1867]. Vol. 5: pp. 259 [1869]. J. Van Voorst.
    Knipowitsch, N. 1891. Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte von Clione limacina. Biol. Zentralbl., 10: 300-303, 7 figs.
    Lalli, C. M. 1970. Structure and function of the buccal apparatus of Clione limacina (Phipps) with a review of feeding in gymnosomatous pteropods. J. Exp. mar. Biol. Ecol., 4(2): 101-118, 5 figs.
    Lalli, C. M., and R. J. Conover. 1973. Reproduction and development of Paedoclione doliiformis, and a comparison with Clione limacina (Opisthobranchia, Gymnosomata). Marine Biology, 19: 13-22, 7 figs.
    Lebour, M. V. 1931. Clione limacina in Plymouth waters. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 17: 785791, 2 pls.
    Long, S. J. 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
    Malyshev, A. ., T. P. Norekian, and A. O. D. Willows. 1999. Differential effects of serotonergic and peptidergic cardioexcitatory neurons on the heart activity in the pteropod mollusc, Clione limacina. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 185(6):551-560.
    Manteufel, B. P. 1937. Contribution to the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina Phipps (in Russian). Bull. Soc. Natur. Moscou (biol), 46(1): 25-33.
    Massy, A. L. 1909. The Pteropoda and Heteropoda of the coast of Ireland. Fisheries, Ireland. Scientific Investigations. Dept. of Agriculture and Techn. Instruct. for Ireland, 2: 152, pl 1.
    McDonald, G. 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia. 2nd Online Edition, Annotated. 1072 pp  Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz. (http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8115h0wz).
    McIntosh, W. C. 1898. Notes from the Gatty marine laboratory St Andrews, 1. On some larval stages of Clione limacina Phipps. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (7)2: 103-105.
    Meisenheimer, J. 1906. Die Pteropoden der deutschen Sud-polar Expedition 1901-1903. Deutsche Sudpolar-Expedition 1901-1903 9 (Zool.), 1 (2): 92-152 pl. 5-7.
    Mileikovsky, S. A. 1970. Breeding and larval distribution of the pteropod Clione limacina in the North Atlantic, Subarctic and North Pacific Oceans. Marine Biology, 6(4): 317-334, 7 figs.
    Morton, J. E. 1958. Observations on the gymnosomatous pteropod Clione limacina (Phipps). J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 37: 287-297, 3 figs.
    Nordsieck, F. 1972. Die europäischen Meeresschnecken : (Opisthobranchia mit Pyramidellidae, Rissoacea) : vom Eismeer bis Kapverdem, Mittelmeer und Schawarzes Meer. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.
    Phipps, C. J. 1774. A voyage towards the North Pole undertaken by His Majesty’s Command 1773 : i-viii, 1-253.
    Pruvot-Fol, A. 1926. Mollusques Pteropodes Gymnosomes provenant des campagnes du Prince Albert Ier de Monaco. Résultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert 1er, Prince souverain de Monaco 70: 1-60 pl. 1-3.
    Rang, S. 1825. Description d’un genre nouveau de la classe des Ptéropodes , et de deux espèces nouvelles du genre Clio. Annales des Sciences Naturelles : 5: 283-287, pl. 7.
    Rosenberg, G. 2009. Malacolog 4.1.1. A Database of Western Atlantic Marine Mollusca. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.
    Rosenberg, G. 2004. Malacolog Version 3.3.2: Western Atlantic gastropod database. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.
    Rosewater, J. 1959. Intertidal stranding of Clione limacina in Massachusetts. The Nautilus, 73(2): 76-77.
    Rudman W.B. et al. 1998. Clione limacina accessed through: Sea Slug Forum on 2014-12-14. (http://seaslugforum.net/showall/cliolima).
    Satterlie, R. A. 1991. Speed changes in the swiming system of the pteropod molusc Clione limacina, three gears or two gears with overdrive. J. mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 71(3), Symposium on the mechanics and physiology of animal swimming, Plymouth, England, U.K., April 15-18, 1991: 721.
    Satterlie, R. A. 1991. Electrophysiology of swim musculature in the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina. J. Exp. Biol., 159: 285-302.
    Satterlie, R. A., J. Goslow G. E., and A. Reyes. 1990. Two types of striated muscle suggest two-geared swimming in the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina. J. Exp. Zool., 255(2): 131-140.
    Schalfejeff, P. 1889. Zur Anatomie der Clione limacina Phipps (abstract). J. R. Micr. Soc., (1889): 497.
    Suzuki, A., K. Mawatari, and M. Ozawa. 2001. Chromosomes and DNA contents of the pelagic snail Clione limacina (Phipps), Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda. Chromosome Science 5(3):133-137.
    Templado, J., and R. Villanueva. 2010. Checklist of Phylum Mollusca. pp. 148-198 In Coll, M., et al., 2010. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats. PLoS ONE 5(8):36pp.
    Trainito, E., and M. Doneddu. 2014. Nudibranchi del Mediterraneo, 2a. ed. Il Castello.
    Tsirulis, T. P. 1988. The electron microscope study of the osphradium in the mollusc Clione limacina. Tsitologiya 30(11):1376-1379.
    Tsirulis, T. P. 1974. The fine structures of the statocyst in the gastropod mollusc Clione limacina. Zh. Evol Biokhim Fiziol., 10(2): 181-188.
    Tsirulis, T. P. 1986. THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE RECEPTOR-CELLS OF REDUCED TENTACLES IN THE MOLLUSK CLIONE-LIMACINA (OPISTHOBRANCHIA, PTEROPODA) .1. CHEMORECEPTORS. Tsitologiya. 28: 409-.
    Turgeon, D., J. F. Quinn, A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, P. M. Mikkelsen, R. J. Neves, C. F. E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F. G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J. D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, 26.
    van der Spoel, T. S. 1973. Meridionalis, a valid forma in Clione limacina (Phipps, 1774) (Gastropoda). Bull. zool. Mus. Amsterdam, 3(9): 53-64, 9 figs.
    Vortsepneva, E. V., and A. B. Tzetlin. 2014. NEW DATA ON THE FINE STRUCTURE OF HOOKS IN CLIONE LIMACINA (GASTROPODA, OPISTOBRANCHIA) AND DIVERSITY OF THE JAW APPARATUS IN GASTROPODS. Zoologichesky Zhurnal. 93: 466–478.

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes (2012-2019) "Clione limacina" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 23/09/2013, Accessed: 17/07/2019 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/DJN2B)

In order to copy this cite or text fragments you must be a registered user.