Pleurobranchus testudinarius

Pleurobranchus testudinarius (Cantraine, 1835)

Pleurobranchus testudinarius @ Caials 24-07-2015 by Enric Madrenas

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Pleurobranchida  

 

Superfamily

Pleurobranchoidea  

 

Family

Pleurobranchidae  

 

Genus

Pleurobranchus  

 

Species

Pleurobranchus testudinarius  Cantraine, 1835

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 140821).
Synonyms

  • Doris testudinaria Risso 1818
  • Pleurobranchus mammillatus Schultz in Philippi, 1836
  • Susania testudinaria Cantraine, F.J., 1840
  • Pleurobranchus denotarisi Vérany, 1846
  • Daudebardia tarentina de Stefani & Pantanelli, 1879
  • Corambe testudinaria Fischer P. 1889

Description
This is a large species because it can reach more than 20 cm in length. The mantle is very domed and very broad, completely covering the foot. The color of the adult animal is orange-red or dark purple, but in the young speciments it is of a lighter shade. The mantle has conical protuberances that are larger in the center and whose bases are surrounded by thin purple lines. In the anterior part of the mantle there’s a slit hiding the insertion point of the rhinophores. The cephalic veil is underdeveloped. The gill is yellowish and has 18 to 30 lamellae on either side of the central shaft, its big size frequently makes it protrude from the mantle. The foot is yellowish and on its back zone there is a “pedia” gland.

Biology
Apparently it feeds on certain species of colonial tunicates although data suggest that it could be a scavenger too. Very little is known about the biology of this species. It is believed it has nocturnal habits, during the day hiding under rocks or inside caves.

Etymology

  • Pleurobranchus. From Greek Pleuron, “side” + Bragchia, “gill”.
  • Testudinarius. From Latin testūdin- (root of testūdō) turtle, pertaining to or resembling a turtle or turtle shell.

Distribution
Distribution predominantly Mediterranean, this species has also been recently cited for the Azores and the Canary Islands. In the Catalan coast has been observed in different locations on sandy bottoms from about 20 m depth, but also in underwater caves of the Costa Brava.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Pleurobranchus testudinarius
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

References for the species: Pleurobranchus testudinarius

    Andalucía (Atl.): Templado et al. (1993b). Andalucía (Med.): Moreno and Templado (1998), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al 2000), Peñas et al. (in press). Levante: Templado (1982b, as Susania). Catalunya: Ros (1975, 1978b, citada como Susania testudinaria), Domènech et al. (2006), M@re Nostrum [Gat de Norfeu (Roses)]. Baleares: Ros and Gili (1985), Ballesteros (1998) (both as Susania). Canarias: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Madeira: Wirtz (unpubl. data). Azores: Wirtz and Martins (1993), Wirtz (1992, 1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003).

    Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007 & 2016, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:2 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:0 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:0 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Pleurobranchus testudinarius based on our own records.

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More pictures

Bibliography

    Avila, S. P. 2000. Shallow-water marine molluscs of the Azores: biogeographical relationships. Arquipélago (Live and Marine Sciences) supplement 2, part A: 99-131.
    Avila, C., J. M. N. Azevedo, J. M. Gonçalves, J. Fontes, and F. Cardigos. 1998. Checklist of the shallow-water marine molluscs of the Azores: 1 – Pico, Faial, Flores and Corvo. Açoreana 8 (4): 487-523.
    Baba, K. 1971. Pleurobranchus hirasei s sp, proposed for a mollusc formerly known as Oscanius testudinarius: Hirase 1927, from Japan (Opisthobranchia: Notaspidea). Venus 30(1): 23-28, pl 3.
    Ballesteros, M. 2007. Lista actualizada de los opistobranquios (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira. 2: 163–188.
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2019. OPK - Opistobranquis. (https://opistobranquis.info/).
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2016. Actualización del catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira 6(2016): 1-28.
    Bielecki, S., G. Cavignaux, J. M. Crouzet, and S. Grall. 2011. Des limaces de rêve.
    Cantraine, F. J. 1835. Diagnoses ou descriptions succinctes de quelques espèces nouvelles de mollusques. Bulletin de l’Academie Royale des Sciences de Bruxelles 2 (11): 380-411.
    Cervera, J. L., G. Calado, C. Gavaia, M. A. E. Malaquías, J. Templado, M. Ballesteros, J. C. García-Gómez, and C. Megina. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
    Domènech, A., C. Ávila, and M. Ballesteros. 2006. Opisthobranch molluscs from the subtidal trawling grounds off Blanes (Girona, north-east Spain). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 86: 383-389.
    Flanders Marine Institute. 2018. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase: Territorial Seas. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase. (http://www.marineregions.org/).
    ICZN. 1993. Opinion 1767. Pleurobranchus forskalii Ruppell & Leuckart, [1828] and P. testudinarius Cantraine, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): specific names conserved. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 51(2): 164-165.
    Long, S. J. 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
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    Martínez-Chacón, M. 2018. Nudibranquios de la isla de Tarifa, pequeñas joyas del estrecho de Gibraltar. Junta de Andalucía. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio.
    McDonald, G. 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia. 2nd Online Edition, Annotated. 1072 pp  Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz. (http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8115h0wz).
    Moreno, D., and J. Templado. 1998. Nuevas aportaciones al conocimiento de los opistobranquios del sureste español. II. Iberus 16 (2): 39-58.
    Moro, L., J. L. Martín Esquivel, M. J. Garrido Sanahuja, and I. Izquierdo Zamora. 2003. Lista de especies marinas de Canarias (algas, hongos, plantas y animales). Consejería de Política Territorial y Medio Ambiente del Gobierno de Canarias.
    Oliver, J. D., J. Templado, and D. K. Kersting. 2012. Gasterópodos marinos de las islas Columbretes (Mediterráneo occidental). Iberus, 30 (2).
    Ortea, J., L. Moro, and M. Caballer. 2014. Contribución al estudio de la familia Pleurobranchidae Gray, 1827 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) en la Macaronesia y las islas Galápagos. Vieraea. 42: 117–148.
    Ozturk, B., A. Dogan, B. Bitlis-Bakir, and A. Salman. 2014. Marine Molluscs of the Turkish Coasts: An Updated Checklist. Tübitak, Turkish Journal of Zoology 38.
    Peñas, A., E. Rolán, A. Luque, J. Templado, F. Rubio, D. Moreno, and A. Sierra. 2006. Moluscos marinos de la zona de la isla de Alborán. Iberus, supplement 6.
    Pontes, M., J. M. Dacosta, A. Ollé i Callau, and L. Aguilar. 1996. M@re Nostrum. (http://marenostrum.org/).
    Prkić, J., A. Petani, Ð. Iglić, and L. Lanča. 2018. Stražnjoškržnjaci Jadranskoga Mora: Slikovni Atlas i Popis Hrvatskih Vrsta / Opisthobranchs of the Adriatic Sea: Photographic Atlas and List of Croatian Species. Ronilaćki Klub Sveti Roko, Bibinje.
    Riedl, R. 1983. Fauna und Flora der Mittelmeeres, ein systematischer Meeresfuhrer fur Biologen und Naturfreunde, 836 pp. Paul Parey, Hamburg & Berlin.
    Ros, J. 1973. Opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) del litoral ibérico : Estudio faunístico y ecológico. Tesi doctoral. Universitat de Barcelona.
    Ros, J. 1978. Distribució en l’espai i en el temps dels opistobranquis iberics, amb especial referencia als del litoral catalá. Butll. Inst. Cat. Hist. Nat., 42 (Sec. Zool., 2): 23-32.
    Ros, J. 1975. Opistobranquios (Gastropoda: euthyneura) del litoral ibérico. Investigacion Pesquera. 39: 269–372.
    Rudman, W. B. 1993. Case 2838. Pleurobranchus forskalii Ruppell & Leuckart, 1828 and p testudinarius Cantraine, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): proposed conservation of the specific names. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 50(1): 16-19.
    Rudman W.B. et al. 1998. Pleurobranchus testudinarius accessed through: Sea Slug Forum on 2014-12-14. (http://seaslugforum.net/showall/pleutest).
    Sánchez Tocino, L. 2001. Pleurobranchus testudinarius accessed through: Opistobranquios de la Costa de Granada on 2014-12-14. (http://www.ugr.es/~lstocino/pleurobranchus_testudinarius.htm).
    Templado, J., and R. Villanueva. 2010. Checklist of Phylum Mollusca. pp. 148-198 In Coll, M., et al., 2010. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats. PLoS ONE 5(8):36pp.
    Trainito, E., and M. Doneddu. 2014. Nudibranchi del Mediterraneo, 2a. ed. Il Castello.
    Trainito, E., and S. Trainito. 2003. Mediterranean harlequins : a field guide to Mediterranean sea slugs. Taphros, Olbia (SS), Italia.
    Wirtz, P. 1994. Three shrimps, five nudibranchs, and two tunicates new for the marine fauna of Madeira. Boletim do Museu Municipal de Funchal 46: 167-172.
    Wirtz, P. 1998. Opisthobranch Molluscs from the Azores. Vita Marina 45 (1): 1-16.
    Wirtz, P. 1995b. Unterwasserführer Madeira, Kanarean, Azoren. Delius Klasing, Edition Naglschmid. Stuttgart, Germany: 247 pp.
    Wirtz, P., and H. Debelius. 2003. Mediterranean and Atlantic invertebrate guide. ConchBooks, Hackenheim, Germany.
    Wirtz, P., and H. Martins. 1993. Notes on some rare and little known marine invertebrates from the Azores, with a discussion of the zoogeography of the region. Arquipélago (Life and Marine Sciences) 11 A: 55-63.
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    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes (2012-2019) "Pleurobranchus testudinarius" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 15/05/2012, Accessed: 23/07/2019 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/dBjSU)

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