Amphorina andra

Amphorina andra Korshunova, Malmberg, Prkić, Petani, Fletcher, Lundin, Martynov, 2020

Amphorina andra by Enric Madrenas

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Cladobranchia  

 

Superfamily

Fionoidea  

 

Family

Eubranchidae  

 

Genus

Amphorina  

 

Species

Amphorina andra  Korshunova, Malmberg, Prkić, Petani, Fletcher, Lundin, Martynov, 2020

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 1424907).
Synonyms

  • Eubranchus farrani: sensu Schmekel and Portmann 1982: 241–243, taf. 14, Fig. 1–3,
    abb. 7.78 (= Amphorina andra sp. nov. + mixture of species).
  • Eubranchus farrani: sensu Trainito & Doneddu, 2014: 117 (four lower figs), non Alder
    & Hancock, 1844.
  • Eubranchus farrani: sensu Prkić et al. 2018: 347, figs 3a–b; p. 348, figs 1a–e; p. 349,
    figs 1a–d; 350, figs 1a–d; 351, figs 1a–d, non Alder & Hancock, 1844.

Description
The length of adult specimens may reach 20 mm. The body is narrow and very variable in colour. There are completely pale specimens (without any orange or yellow spots) to specimens with dull orange or yellow spots, however they never have orange or yellow coloration on the tail (typical of A. farrani), but they may have a white median line. Dorsal side of the body and cerata may be partially or almost completely covered with big greyish, brownish or blackish blotches. Other specimens may have the body and cerata uniformly coloured orange or golden yellow. The rhinophores are smooth and 1.5–2 times longer than the oral tentacles. The upper part of the rhinophores and oral tentacles is commonly covered with orange to yellowish brown pigment and dispersed small white spots, never forming a pinkish ring; occasionally the entire surface of the rhinophores and oral tentacles is covered with yellowish orange or brownish pigment. There are 7-8 groups of up to 3 cerata along each side of the body. Every cera is relatively long and swollen, with the tip covered with orange or yellow pigment, or with no pigment at all, allowing to see the cnidosac inside, but they never have a pinkish subapical ring, typical of A.viriola. The foot is narrow, anteriorly without foot corners, never with a white punctuated line along the edges, typical of A.linensis.

Can be separated from other species of the genus by the following traits:

  • The absence of orange-yellow colouration in spotted forms, present in A.farrani.
  • The presence of forms with blackish surface pigmentation on the body and cerata, absent in A.farrani.
  • The absence of a distinct dotted white line along edge of the foot, present in A.linensis.
  • The smaller number of ceratal rows and blunt tip, not tappered as in A.linensis.
  • The larger size of the dorsal spots (in spotted forms) than A.pallida
  • The smaller number of anterior ceratal rows than A.pallida.

Biology
At the Swedish west coast this species lives below the halocline, but in other areas it can be found closer to the surface or intertidally. In the Mediterranean it is somewhat common from shallow water (0–0.5 m) down to 20 m.

Etymology

  • Andra. From Swedish word meaning “second” or “the other” referring to its separation
    from Amphorina viriola.

Distribution
Present around the Mediterranean Sea and in all European Atlantic coasts from Norway to Gibraltar.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Amphorina andra
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:1 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Amphorina andra based on our own records.

More pictures

Bibliography

    Korshunova, T., K. Malmberg, J. Prkić, A. Petani, K. Fletcher, K. Lundin, and A. V. Martynov. 2020. Fine-scale species delimitation: speciation in process and periodic patterns in nudibranch diversity. ZooKeys. 917: 15-50.

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Pontes, Miquel, Manuel Ballesteros, Enric Madrenas (2012-2020) "Amphorina andra" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 10/04/2020, Accessed: 01/06/2020 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/jKANc)

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