Okenia hispanica

Okenia hispanica Valdés & Ortea, 1995

Okenia hispanica by Valdes & Ortea, 1995 by OPK

Body high and relatively short, coloured hyaline white with several pink patches on the notum, the two largest ones located right behind each rhinophore and another large patch behind the gill, on the anal area. The dorsum is smooth. Head with a velum with four long yellow appendages with white tips. There are seven to nine short papillae on each side of the body, on the notum edge. Gill formed by five white leaves with yellow tips. The short oral tentacles are white. There is a yellow line on the white tail.

Very similar to Okenia amoenula, described by Bergh (1907) and Gosliner (1987) as crimson and yellow
in color, and MacNae (1957) as brick red and yellow, whereas Okenia hispanica is pink and yellow. Internally, both species can be distinguished by the structure of the genital system and their radular anatomy. It can also be confused with Okenia mediterranea, but this species has a row tubercles on the dorsum in adult specimens, and also differ on radular anatomy.


  • Okenia. Dedicated to Prof. Dr. Ludwig Gilbert Lorenz Oken, (1779-1851), German natural philosopher, who was editor of the natural history journal “Isis” and published the well-known “Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte” (Natural History Textbook). It’s nomenclature is not binominal, so the names in volume 3 (the zoology part) are unavailable for nomenclatural use.
  • Hispanica. From Spain. Hispania is the latin name for Spain.

This species was described based on a specimen collected in the Alboran Sea, on stones at 60 m depth.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Okenia hispanica
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions


    Western Mediterranean: ★☆☆☆☆
    Eastern Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Atlantic Ocean: ☆☆☆☆☆

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Okenia hispanica based on our own records.

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    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2023. OPK - Opistobranquis. (https://opistobranquis.info/).
    Cervera, J. L., G. Calado, C. Gavaia, M. A. E. Malaquías, J. Templado, M. Ballesteros, J. C. García-Gómez, and C. Megina. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
    Long, S. J. 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
    McDonald, G. 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia. 2nd Online Edition, Annotated. 1072 pp  Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz. (http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8115h0wz).
    Peñas, A., E. Rolán, A. Luque, J. Templado, F. Rubio, D. Moreno, and A. Sierra. 2006. Moluscos marinos de la zona de la isla de Alborán. Iberus, supplement 6.
    Pola, M., S. Paz-Sedano, A. Macali, D. Minchin, A. Marchini, F. Vitale, C. Licchelli, and F. Crocetta. 2019. What is really out there? Review of the genus Okenia Menke, 1830 (Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae) in the Mediterranean Sea with description of two new species. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0215037.
    Templado, J., and R. Villanueva. 2010. Checklist of Phylum Mollusca. pp. 148-198 In Coll, M., et al., 2010. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats. PLoS ONE 5(8):36pp.
    Templado, J., M. Villena, and J. Fernández. 1995. Noticia de nuevos taxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Ibero-Balear y macaronésico. Graellsia 51: 171-189.
    Trainito, E., and M. Doneddu. 2014. Nudibranchi del Mediterraneo, 2nd. ed. Il Castello.
    Valdés, Á., and J. Ortea. 1995. Revised taxonomy of some species of the genus Okenia Menke, 1830 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from the Atlantic Ocean, with the description of a new species. The Veliger, 38(3): 223-234.
    Vallès, Y., Á. Valdés, and J. Ortea. 2000. On the phanerobranch dorids of Angola (Mollusca, Nudibranchia): a crossroads of temperate and tropical species. Zoosystema 22(1): 15-31.
    WoRMS Editorial Board. 2023. World Register of Marine Species. WoRMS. (http://www.marinespecies.org).

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, M., Madrenas, E. & Pontes, M. (2023) "Okenia hispanica" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 27/10/2019. Accessed: 07/06/2023. Available at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/vBeLR)

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