Nemesignis banyulensis

Nemesignis banyulensis (Portmann & Sandmeier, 1960)

Nemesignis banyulensis by Enric Madrenas

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Cladobranchia  

 

Superfamily

Aeolidioidea  

 

Family

Myrrhinidae  

 

Genus

Nemesignis  

 

Species

Nemesignis banyulensis  (Portmann & Sandmeier, 1960)

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 1528383).
Taxonomic note: Furfaro & Mariottini (2021) published “Integrative taxonomy is an evolving field of multidisciplinary studies often utilised to elucidate phylogenetic reconstructions that were poorly understood in the past. The systematics of many taxa have been resolved by combining data from different research approaches, i.e., molecular, ecological, behavioural, morphological and chemical. Regarding molecular analysis, there is currently a search for new genetic markers that could be diagnostic at different taxonomic levels and that can be added to the canonical ones. In marine Heterobranchia, the most widely used mitochondrial markers, COI and 16S, are usually analysed by comparing the primary sequence. The 16S rRNA molecule can be folded into a 2D secondary structure that has been poorly exploited in the past study of heterobranchs, despite 2D molecular analyses being sources of possible diagnostic characters. Comparison of the results from the phylogenetic analyses of a concatenated dataset (the nuclear H3 and the mitochondrial COI and 16S markers) and from the 2D folding structure analyses of the 16S rRNA from the type species of the genera investigated demonstrated the diagnostic power of this RNA molecule to reveal the systematics of four genera belonging to the family Myrrhinidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia). The “molecular morphological” approach to the 16S rRNA revealed to be a powerful tool to delimit at both species and genus taxonomic levels and to be a useful way of recovering information that is usually lost in phylogenetic analyses.” While the validity of the genera Godiva, Hermissenda, Nanuca and Phyllodesmium are confirmed, a new genus was necessary and introduced for existing Dondice banyulensis: Nemesignis.

Synonyms

  • Dondice nicolae Vicente, 1967
  • Godiva banyulensis Portmann & Sandmeier, 1960
  • Dondice banyulensis (Portmann & Sandmeier, 1960)

Description
It is the largest aeolidacean of the Mediterranean as it can reach up to 7 cm in length. Unmistakable by its size and by its spectacular orange color, darker on the head and lighter on the back, where the internal organs can be guessed by transparency. All the animal’s body is traversed by a white dorsal midline passing between the base of the rhinophores, running all along the head and bifurcates to penetrate in the inner side of the oral tentacles. There is another white line that runs along both sides of the body, below the insertion of the cerata. Sometimes there is also a white dashed line between the bases of cerata groups. The oral tentacles are very long, very wide at the base and colored orange except at the tip, which is white. The rhinophores are thin and short in relation to the size of the animal, they are almost completely ringed and coloured orange except the apex which is usually white. The cerata are usually assembled into 6 groups on each side of the body, each group with several rows of cerata. The cerata are long, slender, slightly curved and coloured orange, like the rest of the body. The digestive gland inside the cerata is shaped like a strand of brown. The anterior side of cerata may be iridescent white. The foot is very wide and semi-transparent, with all its margin tinged with an iridescent white line that runs all along it. At the tail, this marginal white line of the foot is fused to the dorsal white line. The propodial tentacles are thick and orange, but their tip is iridiscent white.

Biology
It is incomprehensible that the most spectacular and largest species of Mediterranean aeolidacean went unnoticed until 1960, when it was described by Portmann and Sandmeier as new to science. It is a very active species and, as most facelinids, when provoked extends its cerata sideways in a clearly defensive manoeuvre. It is found in a variety of habitats and substrates such as over hydrozoans colonies of the genus Eudendrium, on gorgonians (Eunicella verrucosa), in the coralligenous, wandering on sandy bottoms or on rocky walls with photophilic algae. This species has been reported feeding on polyps Eudendrium, polychaetes and even other aeolidacean nudibranchs (Flabellina pedata, F. affinis, Cratena peregrina or Facelina rubrovittata). It has been observed that mating animals vigorously move their cerata. The spawn is a heavily scalloped lace with white eggs.

Etymology

  • Nemesignis, from the union of the Greek word Nemesis, that recalls the homonymous Greek goddess and her role of compensatory justice, with the Latin word Ignis, that is the fire that burns and blazes, linked to the fiery red colour of the type species of the genus.
  • Banyulensis referred the oceanographic station of Banyuls-sur-mer (France)

Distribution
Until a few years ago, N. banyulensis was considered to be restricted to the western Mediterranean. However, it has recently been reported along the coasts of Croatia and Turkey, and in recent years it is known to be present on the Iberian Atlantic coast, from Tarifa (Cádiz) to Pasaia (Basque Country) and the Canary Islands. In the Iberian Peninsula it inhabits all the coastal areas of the Mediterranean and the Balearic Islands. In Catalonia it has been reported in many locations along the Costa Brava (Port de la Selva, Cadaqués, L’Estartit, Begur, Palamós, Tossa de Mar and Blanes) as well as off the port of Tarragona.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Nemesignis banyulensis
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

Similar species
Fjordia lineata, whitish and translucent body, not orange, smaller size, cerata with an anterior white line, oral tentacles shorter than rhinophores.

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:3 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:2 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Nemesignis banyulensis based on our own records.

Videos

 

More pictures

Bibliography

    Aguado, F., & López González, S. (2015). Moluscos Nudibranquios de la Costa Tropical. Asociación Buxus & Ayuntamiento de Motril.
    Aguado Jiménez, F., & Marín, A. (2007). Warning coloration associated with nematocyst-based defences in aeolidiodean nudibranchs. Journal of Molluscan Studies 73(1):23-28.
    Altimira, C., Huelin, M. F., & Ros, J. (1981). Mol·luscs bentònics de les illes Medes (Girona). I. Sistemàtica. Butll. Inst. Cat. Hist. Nat. (Sec. Zool.), 47: 69-75.
    Ballesteros, M. (1980). Contribución al conocimientos de los Sacoglosos y Nudibranquios (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Estudio anatómico, sistemático y faunístico de las especies del mediterráneo español. Tesis Doctoral. Universitat de Barcelona.
    Ballesteros, M. (1984). Nudibranquios: miscelanea de formas y coloraciones. Immersio 3(4):20-24.
    Ballesteros, M. (2007). Lista actualizada de los opistobranquios (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira, 2(3), 163–188.
    Ballesteros, M. (1991). Els Opistobranquis. pp. 416-427. In: Historia Natural dels Països Catalans,  Invertebrats no artròpodes. Enciclopèdia Catalana. Barcelona.
    Ballesteros, M., Madrenas, E., & Pontes, M. (2016). Actualización del catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira 6(2016): 1-28.
    Ballesteros, M., Pontes, M., & Madrenas, E. (2015). Opisthobranch from Medes Islands (Marine Protected Area, Costa Brava, Catalonia, NE Spain): 40 years of study. 5th IWO Porto, Portugal.
    Ballesteros, M., Pontes, M., & Madrenas, E. (2019). Els nudibranquis del mar català. Brau Edicions.
    Ballesteros, M., Madrenas, E., & Pontes, M. (2021). OPK - Opistobranquis [Reference]. https://opistobranquis.info/
    Barletta, G., & Melone, G. (1976). Nudibranchi del Promontorio di Portofino (Genova) (Gastropoda Nudibranchia). Natura, Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali, Milano 67(3-4):203-236.
    Bielecki, S., Cavignaux, G., Crouzet, J. M., & Grall, S. (2011). Des limaces de rêve.
    Calado, G., & Urgorri, V. (1998). Additions and new data on Portuguese Opisthobranchs. Bollettino Malacologico 35 (5- 8): 97-102.
    Calado, G., Urgorri, V., Gaspar, R., & Cristobo, F. J. (1999). Catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios bentónicos de las costas de Setúbal-Espichel (Portugal). Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía) 9: 285-294.
    Calado, G., Malaquias, M., Gavaia, C., Cervera, J. L., Megina, C., Dayrat, B., Camacho, Y., Pola, M., & Grance, C. (2003). New data on opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the southwestern coast of Portugal. Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía 19 (1-4): 199-204.
    Calvín Calvo, J. C. (1995). El ecosistema marino mediterráneo, guía de su fauna y su flora.
    Capdevila, M., & Folch, J. (2009). Fauna malacològica del Parc Subaquàtic de Tarragona (el Tarragonès, Catalunya, Espanya). SPIRA Vol. 3 Núms. 1-2 Pàg. 33-51.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., Chemello, R., & Giannuzzi-Savelli, R. (1990). Atlante dei nudibranchi del Mediterraneo. La Conchiglia, Rome 264 pp, 14 pls. (104 clr. ill), line drawings.
    Cervera, J. L., Templado, J., García-Gómez, J. C., Ballesteros, M., Ortea, J., García, F. J., Ros, J., & Luque, A. A. (1988). Catálogo actualizado y comentado de los Opistobranquios (Mollusca, Gastropoda) de la Península Ibérica, Baleares y Canarias, con algunas referencias a Ceuta y la isla de Alborán. Iberus, Supl. 1: 1-84.
    Cervera, J. L., Calado, G., Gavaia, C., Malaquías, M. A. E., Templado, J., Ballesteros, M., García-Gómez, J. C., & Megina, C. (2004). An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
    Crocetta, F., Bitar, G., Zibrowius, H., & Oliverio, M. (2020). Increase in knowledge of the marine gastropod fauna of Lebanon since the 19th century. Bulletin of Marine Science, 96(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.5343/bms.2019.0012
    Dacosta, J. M., Pontes, M., Ollé i Callau, A., & Aguilar, L. (2009). Seguiment de mol·luscs opistobranquis a la platja des Caials (Cadaqués, Alt Empordà). Contribució al catàleg del Parc Natural de Cap de Creus. Annals de l’Institut d’Estudis Empordanesos, 40, 107–130. https://doi.org/10.2436/20.8010.01.8
    De Fez, S. (1974). Ascoglosos y Nudibranquios de España y Portugal. CSIC. Valencia, Spain: 325 pp.
    Debelius, H., & Kuiter, R. H. (2007). Nudibranchs of the world. IKAN- Unterwasserarchiv.
    Edmunds, M. (1964). Eolid Mollusca from Jamaica, with the description of two new genera and three new species. Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean 14 (1): 1-32.
    Flanders Marine Institute. (2018). Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase: Territorial Seas. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase. http://www.marineregions.org/
    Furfaro, G., & Mariottini, P. (2020). A new Dondice Marcus Er. 1958 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) from the Mediterranean Sea reveals interesting insights into the phylogenetic history of a group of Facelinidae taxa. Zootaxa. 4731(1): 1-22. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4731.1.1
    Furfaro, G., & Mariottini, P. (2021). Looking at the Nudibranch Family Myrrhinidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) from a Mitochondrial ‘2D Folding Structure’ Point of View. Life, 11, 583–600. https://doi.org/10.3390/ life11060583
    Furfaro, G., & Mariottini, P. (2021). Nemesignis, a Replacement Name for Nemesis Furfaro & Mariottini, 2021 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Myrrhinidae), Preoccupied by Nemesis Risso, 1826 (Crustacea, Copepoda). Life, 11, 809–810. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11080809
    Furfaro, G., Vitale, F., Licchelli, C., & Mariottini, P. (2020). Two Seas for One Great Diversity: Checklist of the Marine Heterobranchia (Mollusca; Gastropoda) from the Salento Peninsula (South-East Italy). Diversity, 12(12), 171.
    Garcia, F. J., & Bertsch, H. (2009). Diversity and distribution of the Gastropoda Opisthobranchia from the Atlantic Ocean: A global biogeographic approach. Scientia Marina, 73(1), 153–160. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n1153
    García, F. J., & García-Gómez, J. C. (1985). Anatomía funcional de la musculatura del aparato bucal de Godiva banyulensis (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia: Aeolidacea). Journal of Molluscan Studies 51: 157-168.
    García-Gómez, J. C. (1982). Contribución al conocimiento de los opistobranquios del litoral andaluz. Actas II Simposio Ibérico de Estudios Del Bentos Marino III: 235-241.
    García-Gómez, J. C. (2002). Paradigmas de una fauna insólita; Los moluscos opistobranquios del estrecho de Gibraltar (Serie Ciencias) 20: 397 pp. Instituto de Estudios Gibraltareños. Algeciras, Cádiz, Spain.
    García-Gómez, J. C., & García, F. J. (1984). Estudio anatómico y algunas reseñas ecológicas de Godiva banyulensis (Portmann y Sandmeier) (Gastropoda: Nudibranchiata). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 25: 49-65.
    García-Gómez, J. C., Cervera, J. L., García, F. J., & López de la Cuadra, C. M. (1989). Resultados de la Campaña Internacional de Biología Marina “Ceuta-86”: Moluscos Opistobranquios. Bollettino Malacologico 25: 223-232.
    García-Gómez, J. C., Cervera, J. L., García, F. J., Ortea, J. A., García-Martin, S. F., Medina, A., & Burnay, L. P. (1991). Resultados de la campaña internacional de biología marina “Algarve 88”: moluscos opistobranquios. Bollettino Malacologico 27 (5-9): 125-138.
    Göthel, H. (1994). Fauna marina del Mediterráneo. Ediciones Omega.
    Huelin, M. F., & Ros, J. (1984). Els mol·lucs marins de les illes Medes In: Els sistemes naturals de les Illes Medes. Arxius de la Secció de Ciéncies, J Ros et al (eds) 73: 457-500. IEC. Barcelona, Spain.
    Long, S. J. (2006). Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
    Luque, A. A. (1983). Contribución al conocimiento de los gasterópodos marinos de las costas de Málaga y Granada. Iberus 3: 51-74.
    Malaquias, M. A. E., & Morenito, P. M. (2000). The Opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Coastal Lagoon “Ria Formosa” in Southern Portugal. Bollettino Malacologico 36 (5-8): 117-124.
    Martínez-Chacón, M. (2018). Nudibranquios de la isla de Tarifa, pequeñas joyas del estrecho de Gibraltar. Junta de Andalucía. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio. http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/medioambiente/portal_web/servicios_generales/doc_tecnicos/2018/nudibranquios_tarifa/nudibranquios_tarifa_web.pdf
    McDonald, G. (2009). Bibliographia Nudibranchia. 2nd Online Edition, Annotated. 1072 pp  Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8115h0wz
    Medina, A., García, J. C., Moreno, F. J., & López Campos, J. L. (1986). Comparative studies on the histology of the ovotestis in Hypselodoris tricolor and Godiva banyulensis (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia), with special reference to yolk formation. Journal of Morphology 188(1):105-118.
    Menéndez, J. L., & Oliveros, J. (2004, 2015). Dondice banyulensis accessed through: AsturNatura on 2015-02-05. http://www.asturnatura.com/especie/dondice-banyulensis.html
    Moro, L., Ortea, J., & Bacallado, J. J. (2016). Nuevas citas y nuevos datos anatómicos de las babosas marinas (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) de las islas Canarias y su entorno. Revista de La Academia Canaria de Las Ciencias., 48: 9-52.
    Naya Garmendia, L. M. (2016). Nudibranquios de la Costa Vasca: el pequeño Cantábrico multicolor. Aquarium de Donostia-San Sebastián.
    Nordsieck, F. (1972). Die europäischen Meeresschnecken : (Opisthobranchia mit Pyramidellidae, Rissoacea) : vom Eismeer bis Kapverdem, Mittelmeer und Schawarzes Meer. Gustav Fischer.

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes (2021) "Nemesignis banyulensis" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 17/05/2012. Accessed: 19/09/2021. Available at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/fXVMr)

To copy this cite click on the right button.