Jorunna spazzola

Jorunna spazzola (Er. Marcus, 1955)

Jorunna spazzola @ Roatan, Honduras, Caribbean 30-03-2017 by Mickey Charteris


  • Awuka spazzola Er. Marcus, 1955


As a curiosity, Jorunna spazzola can change its body colour from white to brown in just a few minutes (Valdés, Á., com. pers.).



Known georeferenced records of the species: Jorunna spazzola
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions


    Western Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Eastern Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Atlantic Ocean: ☆☆☆☆☆

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Jorunna spazzola based on our own records.

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    Alvim, J., and A. Dias-Pimenta. 2013. Taxonomic review of the family Discodorididae from Brazil, with descriptions of two new species. Zootaxa, 3745(2): 152-198.
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2023. OPK - Opistobranquis. (
    Caballer, M., J. Ortea, N. Rivero, G. Carias-Tucker, M. A. E. Malaquías, and S. Narciso. 2015. The opisthobranch gastropods (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) from Venezuela: an annotated and illustrated inventory of species. Zootaxa 4034 (2): 201–256.
    Camacho-García, Y. E., and T. M. Gosliner. 2008. Systematic revision of Jorunna Bergh, 1876 (Nudibranchia: Discodorididae) with a morphological phylogenetic analysis. Journal of Molluscan Studies 74: 143-181.
    Edmunds, M. 1977. Larval development, oceanic currents, and origins of the Opisthobranch fauna of Ghana. Journal of Molluscan studies 43:301-308.
    Frank, B. et al. 1998. Jorunna spazzola accessed through: on 2014-12-14. (
    Garcia, F. J., and H. Bertsch. 2009. Diversity and distribution of the Gastropoda Opisthobranchia from the Atlantic Ocean: A global biogeographic approach. Scientia Marina. 73: 153–160.
    Goodheart, J. A., R. A. Ellingson, X. G. Vital, H. C. Galvão Filho, J. B. McCarthy, S. M. Medrano, V. J. Bhave, K. García-Méndez, L. M. Jiménez, G. López, C. A. Hoover, J. D. Awbrey, J. M. De Jesus, W. Gowacki, P. J. Krug, and Á. Valdés. 2016. Identification guide to the heterobranch sea slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Bocas del Toro, Panama. Marine Biodiversity Records. 9: 56.
    Long, S. J. 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
    Marcus, E. G. 1955. Opisthobranchia from Brazil. Boletim da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Zoology, 207, 20:89-261, pls. 1-30.
    Marcus, Er. 1957. On opisthobranchia from Brazil 2. Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Zoology) 43(292): 390-486.
    McDonald, G. 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia. 2nd Online Edition, Annotated. 1072 pp  Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz. (
    Ortea, J., and L. Moro. 2016. Nuevos datos sobre el género Jorunna Bergh, 1876 (Mollusca: Heterobranchia: Discodoridiidae) en la Macaronesia y el mar Caribe. Vieraea 44: 25-52.
    Rios, E. C. 1975. Brazilian marine mollusks iconography, 331 pp, 91 pls. Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande, Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Museu Oceanografico.
    Rudman, W. B., and G. J. Avern. 1989. The genus Rostanga Bergh, 1878 (Nudibranchia: Dorididae) in the Indo-West Pacific. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 96: 281-338.
    Trainito, E., and M. Doneddu. 2014. Nudibranchi del Mediterraneo, 2nd. ed. Il Castello.
    Valdés, Á., and T. M. Gosliner. 2001. Systematics and phylogeny of the caryophyllidia-bearing dorids (Mollusca, Nudibranchia), with the description of a new genus and four new species from Indo-Pacific deep waters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 133(2): 103-198.
    Valdés, A., J. Hamann, D. W. Behrens, and A. DuPont. 2006. Caribbean sea slugs: a field guide to the opisthobranch mollusks from the tropical northwestern Atlantic. Washington: Sea Challengers Natural History Books. 289 pp.
    Wägele, H., and R. C. Willan. 2000. Phylogeny of the Nudibranchia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 130: 83–181.
    WoRMS Editorial Board. 2023. World Register of Marine Species. WoRMS. (

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Pontes, Miquel, Manuel Ballesteros, Enric Madrenas (2023) "Jorunna spazzola" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 09/01/2019. Accessed: 02/06/2023. Available at (

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