Proctonotoidea is a superfamily of aeolidacean nudibranchs.

Antiopella cristata @ Salpatxot, Illes Medes, Spain 31-03-2012 by Pontes, Miquel

The actual classification of the Proctonotoidea proposed by Bouchet et al.(2017) and accepted at WoRMS, with later modifications by Pola, Hallas & Gosliner (2019) is:

  • Superfamily Proctonotoidea Gray, 1853
    • Family Curnonidae d’Udekem d’Acoz, 2017
      • Genus Curnon d’Udekem d’Acoz, 2017
      • Genus Pseudotritonia Thiele, 1912
    • Family Dironidae Eliot, 1910
      • Genus Dirona MacFarland, 1905
    • Family Lemindidae Griffiths, 1985
      • Genus Leminda Griffiths, 1985
    • Family Janolidae Pruvot-Fol, 1933
      • Genus Antiopella Hoyle, 1902
      • Genus Bonisa Gosliner, 1981
      • Genus Janolus Bergh, 1884
    • Family Proctonotidae Gray, 1853
      • Genus Caldukia Burn & M. C. Miller, 1969
      • Genus Galeojanolus M. C. Miller, 1971
      • Genus Proctonotus Alder & Hancock, 1844

The Proctonotoidea of the Mediterranean and around the Iberian Peninsula are:

Antiopella cristata @ Costa Brava, by Enric Madrenas

Antiopella cristata

Janolus hyalinus @ Etang de Thau, France March 2021 by Sylvain LeBris

Janolus hyalinus

Proctonotus mucroniferus Loch Torridon, W. Scotland. Photo Gil Green. - Photograph ©Bernard Picton

Proctonotus mucroniferus


    Bouchet P, Rocroi JP, Hausdorf B, et al. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia. 61(1–2):1–526.
    Pola M, Hallas J, Gosliner TM. 2019. Welcome back Janolidae and Antiopella: Improving the understanding of Janolidae and Madrellidae (Cladobranchia, Heterobranchia) with description of four new species. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 57 : 345–368.

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.