Proctonotoidea is a superfamily of aeolidacean nudibranchs.

Antiopella cristata @ Salpatxot, Illes Medes, Spain 31-03-2012 by Miquel Pontes

The actual classification of the Proctonotoidea proposed by Bouchet et al.(2017) and accepted at WoRMS, with later modifications by Pola, Hallas & Gosliner (2019) is:

  • Superfamily Proctonotoidea Gray, 1853
    • Family Curnonidae d’Udekem d’Acoz, 2017
      • Genus Curnon d’Udekem d’Acoz, 2017
      • Genus Pseudotritonia Thiele, 1912
    • Family Dironidae Eliot, 1910
      • Genus Dirona MacFarland, 1905
    • Family Lemindidae Griffiths, 1985
      • Genus Leminda Griffiths, 1985
    • Family Janolidae Pruvot-Fol, 1933
      • Genus Antiopella Hoyle, 1902
      • Genus Bonisa Gosliner, 1981
      • Genus Janolus Bergh, 1884
    • Family Proctonotidae Gray, 1853
      • Genus Caldukia Burn & M. C. Miller, 1969
      • Genus Galeojanolus M. C. Miller, 1971
      • Genus Proctonotus Alder & Hancock, 1844

The Proctonotoidea of the Mediterranean and around the Iberian Peninsula are:

Antiopella cristata @ Costa Brava, by Enric Madrenas

Antiopella cristata

Janolus hyalinus on bryozoan Tricellaria inopinata @ Zierikzee, Netherlands 25-09-2016 by Marco Faasse

Janolus hyalinus

Proctonotus mucroniferus Loch Torridon, W. Scotland. Photo Gil Green. - Photograph ©Bernard Picton

Proctonotus mucroniferus


    Bouchet, P., J. P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl, and E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61(1-2): 1-526.
    Pola, M., J. Hallas, and T. M. Gosliner. 2019. Welcome back Janolidae and Antiopella: Improving the understanding of Janolidae and Madrellidae (Cladobranchia, Heterobranchia) with description of four new species. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 57 : 345–368.

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.