Okenia aspersa

Okenia aspersa (Alder & Hancock, 1845)

Okenia aspersa Tiree, W. Scotland. Collected Bob Earll by Bernard Picton













































Okenia aspersa  (Alder & Hancock, 1845)

 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 140035).

  • Doris quadricornis Montagu, 1815
  • Idalia aspersa Alder & Hancock, 1845
  • Idalia caudata Orested, 1844 
  • Idalia modesta Verrill, 1875 
  • Idalia pulchella Alder & Hancock, 1854
  • Idaliella modesta (A. E. Verrill, 1875)
  • Okenia ascidicola M. P. Morse, 1972 
  • Okenia leachii var. quadricornis (Montagu, 1815)
  • Okenia modesta (A. E. Verrill, 1875) 
  • Okenia pulchella (Alder & Hancock, 1854)
  • Okenia quadricornis (Montagu, 1815)




  • Okenia. In honor of Prof. Dr. Ludwig Gilbert Lorenz Oken, (1779-1851), German natural philosopher, editor of the magazine “Isis” and publisher of the book “Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte”.
  • Aspersa. From Latin “aspersus”, sprinkled, powdered.


Known georeferenced records of the species: Okenia aspersa
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

References for the species: Okenia aspersa

    Portugal: Cervera, García-Gómez and Ortea (1991).

    General: Alder & Hancock, 1855:append. 12; Colgan, 1914:204; Forbes & Hanley, 1850-1851:578; Garstang, 1890:180; Hoffmann, 1926:15; ICZN, 1974:13; Jeffreys, 1869:79; Lemche, 1972:196 as Idalia aspersa; Just & Edmunds, 1985:64[P]; Picton & Morrow, 1994:54[P]; Thompson, 1988:160; Thompson & Brown, 1976:83; 1984:42[P] as Okenia aspersa

    Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007 & 2016, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.


    Western Mediterranean:0 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:0 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:0 out of 5 stars

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Okenia aspersa based on our own records.

More pictures


    Alder, J., & Hancock, A. (1845). A monograph of the British nudibranchiate Mollusca: with figures of all the species. Ray Society, London.
    Ballesteros, M., Madrenas, E., & Pontes, M. (2020). OPK - Opistobranquis [Reference]. Retrieved January 2, 2019, from https://opistobranquis.info/
    Behrens, D. W. (2004). Pacific Coast nudibranchs, Supplement II. New species to the Pacific Coast and new information on the oldies. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4) 55(2): 11–54.
    Cervera, J. L., López-González, P. J., & García-Gómez, J. C. (1991). Taxonomic and geographical range data on two rare species of Okenia (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia: Doridacea) from the Eastern Atlantic. The Veliger 34 (1): 56-66.
    Cervera, J. L., Calado, G., Gavaia, C., Malaquías, M. A. E., Templado, J., Ballesteros, M., … Megina, C. (2004). An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
    Debelius, H., & Kuiter, R. H. (2007). Nudibranchs of the world. Frankfurt: IKAN- Unterwasserarchiv.
    Edmunds, M. (1968). Acid secretion in some species of Doridacea (Mollusca, Nudibranchia). Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 38:121-133; tbls. 1-3; figs. 1-4.
    Flanders Marine Institute. (2018). Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase: Territorial Seas. Retrieved from http://www.marineregions.org/
    Garcia, F. J., & Bertsch, H. (2009). Diversity and distribution of the Gastropoda Opisthobranchia from the Atlantic Ocean: A global biogeographic approach. Scientia Marina, 73(1), 153–160. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n1153
    García-Gómez, J. C., Cervera, J. L., García, F. J., Ortea, J. A., García-Martin, S. F., Medina, A., & Burnay, L. P. (1991). Resultados de la campaña internacional de biología marina “Algarve 88”: moluscos opistobranquios. Bollettino Malacologico 27 (5-9): 125-138.
    Høisæter, T. (1986). An annotated check-list of marine molluscs of the Norwegian coast and adjacent waters. Sarsia 71(2):73-175.
    Just, H., & Edmuns, M. (1985). North atlantic nudibranchs (Mollusca) seen by Henning Lemche. Ophelia Supplement 2: 1-150.
    Long, S. J. (2006). Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
    McDonald, G. (2009). Bibliographia Nudibranchia. 2nd Online Edition, Annotated. 1072 pp  Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8115h0wz
    McKay, D. W., & Smith, S. M. (1979). Marine Mollusca of east Scotland. Royal  Scottish Museum.
    McMillan, N. F. (1968). British shells, xii + 196 pp. Frederick Warne & Co., Ltd.
    Picton, B. (1981). Collections of nudibranch Mollusca from the Republic of Ireland made during 1981. Report to the Praeger Committee, Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 5 unnumbered pp.
    Picton, B. E., & Morrow, C. (1994). Okenia aspersa accessed through: Nudibranchs of the British Isles on 2014-12-14. Retrieved from http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W13010#
    Picton, B. E., & Morrow, C. (1994). A Field guide to the Nudibranchs of the British Isles. London: Immel Publishing Ltd. London: 143 pp.
    Pola, M., Paz-Sedano, S., Macali, A., Minchin, D., Marchini, A., Vitale, F., … Crocetta, F. (2019). What is really out there? Review of the genus Okenia Menke, 1830 (Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae) in the Mediterranean Sea with description of two new species. PLoS ONE 14(5): E0215037. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0215037
    Pruvot-Fol, A. (1954). Mollusques opisthobranches. Faune de France, 58. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
    Rudman, W. B. (2004). Further species of the opisthobranch genus Okenia (Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae) from the Indo-West Pacific. Zootaxa 695 : 1-70.
    Rudman, W. B. (2007). Two new species of Okenia (Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae) from eastern Australia and Tanzania. Zootaxa 1657 : 57-67.
    Seaward, D. R. (1982). Sea area atlas of the marine molluscs of Britain and Ireland. Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland / Nature Conservancy Council, 242 pp.
    Thiele, J. (1931). Handbuch der systematischen Weichtierkunde 1. Jena (Fischer): I-vi, 1-778, 783 Figs.
    Thiele, J., Bieler, R., & Mikkelsen, P. M. (1992). Handbook of systematic malacology (Vol. pts 3-4). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries : National Science Foundation.
    Thollesson, M. (1999). Phylogenetic analysis of dorid nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Doridacea) using the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Journal of Molluscan Studies 65(3):335-353.
    Thollesson, M. (2000). Increasing fidelity in parsimony analysis of dorid nudibranchs by differential weighting, or a tale of two genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution August, 2000. 16 (2): 161-172.
    Thompson, T. E. (1964). Grazing and the life cycles of British nudibranchs, pp 275-297, In: D. J. Crisp (ed ), Grazing in terrestrial and marine environments. British Ecological Society Symposium No. 4, 322 pp Blackwell, Oxford.
    Thompson, T. E. (1988). Molluscs: benthic opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) keys and notes for the  identification of the species. (2nd ed.). E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys. Avon, Great Britain: 356 pp.
    Thompson, T. E., & Brown, G. H. (1976). British opisthobranch molluscs Mollusca: Gastropoda; keys and notes for the identification of the species. London: Acad. Pr.
    Thompson, T. E., & Brown, G. H. (1984). Biology of Opisthobranch Molluscs. Vol. 2. Ray Society, London 156, pp. 229:
    Todd, C. D. (1981). The ecology of nudibranch molluscs. Oceanography & Marine Biology Annual Review 19:141-234.
    Trainito, E., & Doneddu, M. (2014). Nudibranchi del Mediterraneo (2a). Il Castello.
    Turk, S. M., & Seaward, D. R. (1997). The marine fauna and flora of the Isles of Scilly - Mollusca. Journal  of Natural History 31(4):555-633.
    Urgorri, V., Diaz-Agras, G., Besteiro, C., & Montoto, G. (2011). Additions to the inventory of Mollusca Opisthobranchia of Galicia (NW Iberian Peninsula). Thalassas, 27(2), 77–100. Retrieved from ://WOS:000291629300006
    Valdés, Á., & Ortea, J. (1995). Revised taxonomy of some species of the genus Okenia Menke, 1830 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from the Atlantic Ocean, with the description of a new species. The Veliger, 38(3): 223-234.
    Wägele, H., Vonnemann, V., & Wägele, W. (2003). Toward a phylogeny of the Opisthobranchia. Molecular Systematics and Phylogeography of Mollusks, 185–228. Retrieved from ://CCC:000221520800008
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    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes (2012-2020) "Okenia aspersa" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 19/10/2014, Accessed: 07/04/2020 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/rW3bB)

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