Doto paulinae

Doto paulinae Trinchese, 1881

Doto paulinae by Enric Madrenas

Class: Gastropoda  Cuvier, 1797
Subclass: Heterobranchia  J.E. Gray, 1840
Clade: Euthyneura  Spengel, 1881
Clade: Nudipleura  Wägele & Willan, 2000
Order: Nudibranchia  Cuvier, 1817
Suborder: Dexiarchia  Schrödl, Wägele & Willan, 2001
Infraorder: Cladobranchia Willan and Morton, 1984
Parvorder: [unassigned] Cladobranchia Willan & Morton, 1984
Family: Dotidae  J.E. Gray, 1853
Genus: Doto  Oken, 1815
Species: Doto paulinae Trinchese, 1881


  • Doto styligera Hesse, 1872

This species usually reaches a length of 7-8 mm. The general body coloration is a slightly translucent whitish or yellowish because of the internal viscera. Cephalic veil is semi-transparent and it is not pigmented. All the back is crossed by a brown band sometimes discontinuous or broken, which invades the back of the head and also stains the inside of the rhinophoric sheaths. Brown spots may also be present on the flanks of the animal. The rhinophores have white granulations aligned along their front and back; the rhinophoric sheaths have a slightly lobed upper margin and lack of white granulations. There are 4-5 pairs of cerata, up to 6 pairs in older specimens up to 10 mm in length. The first 3-4 cerata are large and very similar, the other are generally smaller and the last is usually atrophied. In well developed cerata there are usually 3 or 4 rings of 4 to 5 very little rounded prominent tubercles. The apical tubercle, on the contrary, is quite prominent and has a very wide base. The most characteristic feature of this species is definitely the colour of the cerata. All tubercles, but the apical one, are covered by a brown stain (of the same hue as the rest of the body stains) that covers most of the tubercle. The apical tubercle is opaque white, due to an accumulation of white granulations. At the base of the cerata there is usually a brown stain. There is no pseudobranchia on the inner side of the cerata.

Very few biological data are known on this species. D. paulinae has been cited on hydrarian colonies of Aglaophenia pluma and Eudendrium sp., and it has been reported feeding on Obelia geniculata (Schmekel & Kress, 1977). Schmekel & Portmann (1982) indicate that the spawn of this species have very small white eggs, between 60 and 77 microns in diameter.


  • Doto, from Latin Doto, a sea nymph, from Greek Dōtō.
  • Paulinae, dedicated to Pauline, but this person relation to the author is unknown.

There are very few reports for this species, which so far it seems distributed along the Northwestern Mediterranean basin. It has been cited in Genoa (Italy), Villefranche-sur-mer (France) and Capo Miseno (Gulf of Naples, Italy). In the Iberian Peninsula it is known only from the Levantine coast and in Catalonia (Cervera et al. 2004). There are reports from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). In the Catalan coast it has been found in the Cap de Creus, L’Escala, Illes Medes, Tossa de Mar and Blanes.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Doto paulinae
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

References for the species: Doto paulinae

    Levante: Marín and Ros (1991). Catalunya: Ballesteros (1980, 1985, citada como D. cf. paulinae), Ballesteros (datos no publicados) [Blanes].

    General: Nordsieck, 1972:69; Pruvot-Fol, 1954b:407; Schmekel & Kress, 1977:482; Schmekel & Portmann, 1982:166; Trinchese, 1881a:93; Vayssiere, 1913a:309; Vicente, 1967:159

    Sources: Cervera et al., 2004, Ballesteros, 2007 & 2016, McDonald, 2006 and other sources.


    Western Mediterranean:
    Eastern Mediterranean:
    Atlantic Ocean:

More pictures


Further reading

Cite this article as:

Pujals, Álvaro, Manuel Ballesteros, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes (2012-2018) "Doto paulinae" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 19/06/2013, Accessed: 19/12/2018 at (

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