Candiella manicata

Candiella manicata (Deshayes, 1853)

Candiella manicata by Enric Madrenas

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Cladobranchia  

 

Superfamily

Tritonioidea  

 

Family

Tritoniidae  

 

Subfamily

Tritoniinae  

 

Genus

Candiella  

 

Species

Candiella manicata  (Deshayes, 1853)

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 1669252).
Taxonomic note: Genus Duvaucelia is reinstated after the paper by Korshunova & Martynov (2020) to differentiate the small Tritoniidae with non-bilobed frontal veil and a moderate number of lateral teeth in radula, mostly inhabiting European temperate and subtropical waters.
In 2023 the genus name Duvaucelia changes again to Candiella as per De Vasconcelos et al. (2023) based on the fact that the original description of Duvaucelia gracilis does not refer to a specimen of Duvaucelia manicata (incorrectly synonymized in the past with Duvaucelia gracilis, type species of the genus Duvaucelia), so they propose the synonymy of Duvaucelia gracilis with Marionia blainvillea instead. Therefore, Duvaucelia is currently not a valid genus and the name Candiella is revived based on the type species Candiella plebeia.
Actual species composition for the genus Candiella is: Candiella cincta (Pruvot-Fol 1937) comb. nov., Ca. coralliumrubri (Doneddu et al. 2014) comb. nov., Ca. lineata comb. nov., Ca. manicata comb. nov., Ca. odhneri comb. nov., Ca. pallescens Eliot 1906 comb. nov., Ca. plebeia, Ca. striata comb. nov. and Ca. taliartensis Ortea and Moro, 2009 comb. nov.
De Vasconcelos et al. (2023) also state that Ca. manicata hides a complex of at least 4 other cryptic species to be studied in the future.

Synonyms

  • Candiella villafranca Vayssière, 1901
  • Duvaucelia gracilis Risso, 1826
  • Nemocephala marmorata Costa A., 1867
  • Tritonia moesta Bergh, 1884
  • Tritonia manicata Deshayes, 1853
  • Duvaucelia manicata (Deshayes, 1853)

Description
The body, like in other species of the same genus, is tall and with a square section. Animals are small and can reach a size of just over 10 mm long. The background color of the body is whitish but the dorsum appears darkened by an elongated and of irregular contour dark brown, almost black, stain, continuous in many specimens, which runs from the back of the head to the tail. Spots of the same color are also appreciated in front of the rhinophores and on the side walls of the body, in this case in the form of small irregular spots and, in some animals, aligned as a discontinuous stripe. In some specimens the spots on the dorsum and sides of the body could be reddish. The head has a semitransparent cephalic veil with 4-6 fingerings in the front. The rhinophores are short and cylindrical, with 2-3 poorly developed lamellae and a small number of digitations directed obliquely and forward. The rhinophore is surrounded at its base by a wide whitish sheath which also could be coloured in dark brown pigment. The eyes are seen by transparency in the center of the base of the rhinophores. The back has 3-4 white little branched processes on each side. The genital opening and anus are located on the right side of the body, at the height of the first and second dorsal process. The foot is rounded in the front area and is broad in the tail, widely protruding underneath the dorsum; it is coloured whitish.

Biology
This species is usually found in dimly lit shallow rocky walls with an abundance of seaweeds, sponges and hydrarians. In these walls abound anthozoan cnidarians of the stoloniferous group, of the genus Cornularia and Clavularia, on which it apparently feeds. It can also be found between rhizomes of Posidonia oceanica.

Etymology

  • Candiella. Classic authors did not usually explain the origin of the chosen names.
  • Manicata. From Latin “manicatus”, with sleeves, alluding the rhinophoric sheaths.

Distribution
This species is mainly distributed across all Mediterranean coastlines but there are cites from the Atlantic coast of Morocco and in the British Isles. In the Iberian Peninsula it has been found in all coastal areas and also in the Balearic islands. In Catalonia it has been cited in several localities of the Costa Brava (Es Caials, Illes Medes, Estartit, Cala Aiguablava, Llafranc, Cala Santa Cristina, Tossa de Mar) and also in Vilassar de Mar.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Candiella manicata
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

Similar species
Due to its dark coloration, it cannot be confused with any other species.

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean: ★☆☆☆☆
    Eastern Mediterranean: ★☆☆☆☆
    Atlantic Ocean: ★☆☆☆☆
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Candiella manicata based on our own records.

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Bibliography

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Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, M., Madrenas, E. & Pontes, M. (2023) "Candiella manicata" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 16/05/2012. Accessed: 28/02/2024. Available at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/?p=544)

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