Polycera kernowensis

Polycera kernowensis  Korshunova, Driessen, Picton & Martynov, 2021

Polycera kernowensis @ Asturias, Spain by Luis Ángel Díaz Álvarez

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Doridina  

 

Infraorder

Doridoidei  

 

Superfamily

Polyceroidea  

 

Family

Polyceridae  

 

Subfamily

Polycerinae  

 

Genus

Polycera  

 

Species

Polycera kernowensis  Korshunova, Driessen, Picton & Martynov, 2021

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 1541498).
Taxonomical note: Korshunova et al (2021) published their work on the Polycera quadrilineata cryptic complex, where four species from the European Atlantic shores were recognized based on a multidisciplinary approach (molecular, morphological, phylogenetic, phylogeographical and ecological) to species determination. In this work, the authors determined that Polycera faeroensis reports included another cryptic species (new to science) that they have named Polycera kernowensis, that can be easily determined by the shape of the structure protecting the gills, one pair of single lateral processes without tubercles in P. kernowensis, and one pair  of wing-like lateral lobes with multiple small tubercles or extensions in P. faeroensis. Moreover, P. kernowensis usually has less than nine appendages of the frontal veil, while P. faeroensis has commonly more than nine frontal appendages, among other anatomical differences.

Description
Body with a maximum length of 20 mm, translucent white, in which the visceral mass is visible by transparency. It has a frontal veil on the head with up to 9 finger-like cephalic processes coloured yellow. Rhinophores have between 14 and 15 lamellae with a documented maximum of 22 (Korshunova et al. 2021) with yellow tips. The gills have between 4 and 7 unipinnate or partially multipinnate white leaves with yellow tips. The gills are flanked by a single lobe, without tubercles or any kind, coloured white with a yellow distal end. The foot is narrow, translucent white, with a yellow edge at the end of the tail where it joins with a thin mid-dorsal yellow band of the same colour. In its anterior part it is slightly notched in the middle, and has two propodial yellow tentacles, slightly thickened to form a double edge. Eyespots are located on the notum, behind the rhinophores, on a light coloured area.

Biology
Polycera kernowensis is common in shallow-water, as it has been found from 8 to 30 m, on stony and muddy substrates. It feeds on bryozoans Bicellariella ciliata and Scrupocellaria spp.

Etymology

  • Polycera. From Greek “polys”, many + “keras”, horns.
  • Kernowensis, derived from an old name for Cornwall, where this species is commonly found.

Distribution
With the type locality in the United Kingdom, it has also been found in the Netherlands, North of Spain, Portugal, and in the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, in both Atlantic and Mediterranean shores.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Polycera kernowensis
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean: ★☆☆☆☆
    Eastern Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Atlantic Ocean: ★★☆☆☆
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Polycera kernowensis based on our own records.

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More pictures

Bibliography

    Alder J, Hancock A. 1854. Notice of some new species of British Nudibranchiata. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 14(79):102–105. Available from www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2283472.
    Alder J, Hancock A. 1854. A monograph of the British nudibranchiate Mollusca: with figures of all the species. Ray Society, London. Available from www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/131598#page/200/mode/1up.
    Korshunova TA, Driessen FMF, Picton BE, et al. 2021. The multilevel organismal diversity approach deciphers difficult to distinguish nudibranch species complex. Scientific Reports. 11(1):18323. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94863-5.
    Malaquias MAE, Sørensen C, Rauch C, et al. 2022. Polycera norvegica is a valid species, and a plea for good taxonomic practices – a reply to Korshunova et al., 2021. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 101(8):1203–1205. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315422000108.
    Smith I. 2022. Polycera quadrilineata (O. F. Müller, 1776) Identification and Biology. ResearchGate. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.29936.94725.
    Sørensen CG, Rauch C, Pola M, et al. 2020. Integrative taxonomy reveals a cryptic species of the nudibranch genus Polycera (Polyceridae) in European waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 100(5):733–752. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315420000612.
    Thompson TE, Brown GH. 1984. Biology of Opisthobranch Molluscs. Vol. 2. Ray Society, London 156, pp. 229:
    WoRMS Editorial Board. 2023. World Register of Marine Species. WoRMS. Available from http://www.marinespecies.org.

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Pontes, Miquel (2023) "Polycera kernowensis" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 05/02/2023. Accessed: 28/05/2024. Available at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/?p=37586)

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