Calma glaucoides

Calma glaucoides (Alder & Hancock, 1854 )

Calma glaucoides by Enric Madrenas

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Cladobranchia  

 

Superfamily

Fionoidea  

 

Family

Calmidae  

 

Genus

Calma  

 

Species

Calma glaucoides  (Alder & Hancock, 1854)

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 138960).

Taxonomic note: The phylogenetic analyses performed by Cella et al. (2016) revealed that the traditional Tergipedidae family is polyphyletic and belongs to a larger monophyletic clade including members of the traditional families Eubranchidae, Fionidae and Calmidae; this was an unexpected result, since the validity of these taxa and their distinctness from the Tergipedidae was never questioned before. They proposed to join the families Tergipedidae, Eubranchidae, Calmidae and Fionidae under the name of Fionidae. This decision has been reinterpreted and completed in the paper by Korshunova et al. (2017) because it obviated evident morphological and molecular aspects.

Until a few years ago the only known species of the genus Calma in the world was C. glaucoides, described as Eolis glaucoides by Alder & Hancock in 1854. Another species of the same genus, C. gobioophaga was recently described thanks to specimens captured in the coasts Of Portugal (Calado & Urgorri, 2002). The study of the specimens of the Portuguese coasts has allowed to distinguish in the genus Calma two sympatric species that coexist in the same distribution area and live in the same habitat: C. glaucoides and C. gobioophaga.
Calado and Urgorri (2002) indicate the main differences between the two species, among which are the longest propodial tentacles in C. gobioophaga; the larger eyes located immediately behind the base of the rhinophores in C. gobioophaga, smaller and located behind the base of the rhinophores in C. glaucoides; kidney located between the second and last group of cerata in C. gobiophaga and between the second and fifth or sixth group of cerata in C. glaucoides; somewhat smaller egg size in C. gobioophaga; feeding on Gobius niger eggs in C. gobioophaga and eggs of Lepadogaster lepadogaster, L. purpurea, L. candollei, Parablennius gattorugine or P. pilicornis on C. glaucoides. Very recently Prkić et al. (2014) have performed a molecular study (COI and 16S genes) of Croatian specimens from different locations of C. glaucoides and C. gobioophaga confirming the separation of the two species.

Synonyms

  • Eolis albicans Friele & Hansen, 1876
  • Eolis glaucoides Alder & Hancock, 1854 (original)
  • Forestia mirabilis Trinchese, 1881

Description
The specimens of this species are between 10 and 15 mm in length. The general color of the body is translucent yellowish white, allowing the internal organs to be visible by transparency, although it may also be dark yellow, purpuraceous or brown depending on the type of food. The head is quite short, as are the oral palps and the rhinophores. The rhinophores are smooth and semi-transparent and, like the oral palps, have an opaque tip due to whitish or yellowish pigmentation. The eyes are very small and are located right behind the base of the rhinophores. There are 7 to 10 groups of cerata well separated from each other and that begin very close to the rhinophores. The cerata are semitransparent, fairly long, thin and tappered. There are 3-4 cerata in each group. Within each cerata, the digestive gland is shaped like a thin, yellowish or creamy duct. In larger specimens there could be a fine bluish score on the cerata that makes the surface opaque and masks the digestive gland; the pointed apex of the cerata is yellowish. The cerata of the same group seem to grow from a common base. In most of the specimens the gonadal units are visible by transparency in the form of whitish structures of lobulated contour, located between the insertion zones of each group of cerata on each side of the back. The foot is wide and forms two short and sharp propodial tentacles. The tail is short and is usually covered by the rearmost cerata.

Biology
Animals of this species are usually found under stones from very shallow depths. Often the animals expand their cerata laterally resembling the tentacles of an anemone. It feeds on fish eggs such as Lepadogaster lepadogaster, L. purpurea, L. candollei, Parablennius gattorugine or P. pilicornis. The spawn is a sinuous cord, fine and very irregularly arranged with white eggs that are inside capsules of about 138 microns in diameter (Calado & Urgorri, 2002).

Etymology

  • Glaucoides. Derives from Latin “glaucus”, white. Meaning “whitish”.

Distribution
Because until year 2002 was not described the sympatric species C. gobioophaga with which it can be easily confused, it is possible that reports of C. glaucoides in many geographical areas may also include C. gobioophaga specimens. C. glaucoides is a species that has been found in European waters, both Atlantic and Mediterranean, from Norway, British Isles, French Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Gulf of Naples (Prkić et al., 2014). In the Iberian Peninsula it has been found and confirmed in Galicia and Portugal (Calado & Urgorri, 2002) and in Catalonia it has been reported at Es Caials (Cadaqués), Cala Aiguafreda, Calella de Palafrugell, La Galera (Palamós), Sant Feliu de Guixols and Playa del Calafató (L’Ametlla de Mar).

Known georeferenced records of the species: Calma glaucoides
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:2 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Calma glaucoides based on our own records.

Videos

 

More pictures

Bibliography

    Agersborg, H. P. v. 1921. Contributions to the knowledge of the nudibranchiate mollusk, Melibe leonina (Gould). Amer. Naturalist 55(638):222-253; 12 figs.
    Alder, J., and A. Hancock. 1854. A monograph of the British nudibranchiate Mollusca: with figures of all the species. Ray Society, London.
    Alder, J., and A. Hancock. 1855. A monograph of the British nudibranchiate Mollusca: with figures of all the species. Ray Society, London.
    Angel, H. 1967. Sea-slugs. Animals 10:287-289.
    Ballesteros, M. 1980. Contribución al conocimientos de los Sacoglosos y Nudibranquios (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Estudio anatómico, sistemático y faunístico de las especies del mediterráneo español. Tesis Doctoral. Universitat de Barcelona.
    Ballesteros, M. 2007. Lista actualizada de los opistobranquios (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira. 2: 163–188.
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2019. OPK - Opistobranquis. (https://opistobranquis.info/).
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2016. Actualización del catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira 6(2016): 1-28.
    Barletta, G. 1981. Gasteropodi nudi (Pleurobranchomorpha, Sacoglossa, Aplysiomorpha e Nudibranchia) Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, Guide per il riconoscimento delle specie animali delle acque lagunari e costiere italiane AQ/1/92, 3. Quaderni della Civica Stazione Idrobiologica di Milano (9):1-124.
    Barnes, H., and H. T. Powell. 1954. Onchidoris fusca (Muller); a predator of barnacles. Journal of Animal Ecology 23(2):361-363, pl 2.
    Bedulli, D., R. Cattaneo-Vietti, R. Chemello, F. Ghisotti, and F. Giovine. 1995. Gastropoda Opisthobranchia, Divasibranchia, Gymnomorpha, Fascicolo 15, pp. 1-23.  In: A. Minelli, A. Ruffo, & S. La Posta (Eds.). Checklist delle specie fauna italiana, Checklist delle specie della Fauna Italiana. Calderini, Bologna.
    Behrens, D. W., C. Petrinos, and C. Schrurs. 2005. Nudibranch behavior. New World Publications, Jacksonville, Fla.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1875. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Aeolidiaden. III. Verhandlungen der koniglich-kaiserlich Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien (Abhandlungen) 25:633-658, pls. 13-15.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1890. Die cladohepatischen Nudibranchien. Zoologische Jahrbucher, Abtheilung fur Systematik Geographie und Biologie der Thiere 5:1-75.
    Bergh, R. 1892. System der Nudibranchiaten Gasteropoden. Malacologische Untersuchungen. In: Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen von Dr. Carl Gottfried Semper. Zweiter Theil#Wissenschaftliche Resultate. Band 7, Theil 5. [pp. 1–51, pls 1–4, Mar. 1897; pp. 53–115, pls 5–8, Dec. 1897; pp. 117–158, pls 9–12, Nov. 1898; pp. 159–208, pls 13–16, 27 Mar. 1900; pp. 209–256, pls 17–20, 29 Jan. 1901; pp. 257–312, pls. 21–24, 15 Oct. 1901; pp. 313–382, pls 25–29, 7 Oct. 1902].
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1878. Malacologische Untersuchungen, In: Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen von Dr Carl Gottfried Semper. Zweiter Theil. Wissenschaftliche Resultate. Band 2, Theil 2, Heft 14; pp 603-645, I-L, pls. 66-68.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1882. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Aeolidiaden. VII. Verhandlungen der koniglich-kaiserlich Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien (Abhandlungen) 32:7-74, pls. 1-6.
    Bielecki, S., G. Cavignaux, J. M. Crouzet, and S. Grall. 2011. Des limaces de rêve.
    Brown, G. H., and B. E. Picton. 1979. Nudibranchs of the British Isles — a colour guide. Underwater Conservation Society, Manchester, by R. Earll.
    Calado, G., and V. Urgorri. 2001. Feedings habits of Calma glaucoides (Alder and Hancock, 1854): its adaptative structures and behaviour. Bollettino Malacologico 37 (5-8): 177-180.
    Calado, G., and V. Urgorri. 1998. New data on the radular tooth morphology of Calma glaucoides (Alder & Hancock, 1854). Abstracts, World Congress of Malacology, Washington, D.C., 1998:48.
    Calado, G., and V. Urgorri. 2002. A new species of Calma Alder & Hancock, 1855 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) with a review of the genus. Journal of Molluscan Studies 68: 311-317.
    Calado, G., M. Malaquias, C. Gavaia, J. L. Cervera, C. Megina, B. Dayrat, Y. Camacho, M. Pola, and C. Grance. 2003. New data on opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the southwestern coast of Portugal. Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía 19 (1-4): 199-204.
    Calado, G., V. Urgorri, R. Gaspar, and F. J. Cristobo. 1999. Catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios bentónicos de las costas de Setúbal-Espichel (Portugal). Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía) 9: 285-294.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and G. Barletta. 1984. Elenco preliminare dei molluschi opistobranchi viventi nel Mediterraneo (Sacoglossa, Pleurobranchomorpha, Acochlidiacea, Aplysiomorpha, Nudibranchia). Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 20(9-12):195-218.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and F. Boero. 1988. Relationships between eolid (Mollusca, Nudibranchia) radular morphology and their cnidarian prey. Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 24(9-12):215-22.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and R. Chemello. 1991. The opisthobranch fauna of a Mediterranean lagoon (Stagnone di Marsala, western Sicily). Malacologia 32(2):291-299.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and T. E. Thompson. 1989. Mediterranean opisthobranch molluscs: a zoogeographic approach. Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 25(5-8):183-204.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., R. Chemello, and R. Giannuzzi-Savelli. 1990. Atlante dei nudibranchi del Mediterraneo. La Conchiglia, Rome 264 pp, 14 pls. (104 clr. ill), line drawings.
    Cella, K., L. Carmona, I. Ekimova, A. Chichvarkhin, D. Schepetov, and T. M. Gosliner. 2016. A Radical Solution: The Phylogeny of the Nudibranch Family Fionidae. PLoS ONE 12/2016; 11(12):e0167800.
    Cervera, J. L., G. Calado, C. Gavaia, M. A. E. Malaquías, J. Templado, M. Ballesteros, J. C. García-Gómez, and C. Megina. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
    Cervera, J. L., J. Templado, J. C. García-Gómez, M. Ballesteros, J. Ortea, F. J. García, J. Ros, and A. A. Luque. 1988. Catálogo actualizado y comentado de los Opistobranquios (Mollusca, Gastropoda) de la Península Ibérica, Baleares y Canarias, con algunas referencias a Ceuta y la isla de Alborán. Iberus, supl. 1: 1-84.
    Cornet, R., and M. Marchad. 1951. Inventaire de la faune marine de Roscoff Mollusques. Travaux de la Station Biologique de Roscoff, Suppl 5:1-80.
    de Montaudouin, X., and P.-G. Sauriau. 2000. Contribution to a synopsis of marine species  richness in the Perthuis Charentais Sea with new insights in soft-bottom macrofauna of the Marennes- Oléron Bay. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 41(2):181-222.
    Domènech, A., C. Avila, and M. Ballesteros. 2002. Spatial and Temporal variability of the Opisthobranch molluscs of Port Lligat Bay (Catalonia, NE Spain). Journ. Moll. Stud., 68:29-37.
    Doneddu, M., B. Manunza, and E. Trainito. 1995. Opistobranchi del Nord Sardegna: censimento ed annotazioni. Biologia Marina Mediterranea II (2): 369-370.
    Edmunds, M. 1966. Protective mechanisms in the Eolidacea (Mollusca, Nudibranchia). Journal of the Linnean Society (Zoology) 46(308):27-71, pls. 1-4.
    Eliot, C. N. E. 1910. A monograph of the British nudibranchiate Mollusca: with figures of the species; Figures by the late Joshua Alder and the late Albany Hancock, and others. Ray Society, London.
    Evans, T. J. 1922. Calma glaucoides. A study in adaptation. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, new series 66(3):439- 455, pl 11.
    Evans, T. J. 1910. The anatomy and physiology of Calma glaucoides. Nature 84:549.
    Evertsen, J., and T. Bakken. 2005. Nudibranch diversity (Heterobranchia, Gastropoda) along the coast of Norway. Fauna Norvegica, 25: 1-37.
    Evertsen, J., and T. Bakken. 2013. Diversity of Norwegian sea slugs (Nudibranchia): new species to Norwegian coastal waters and new data on distribution of rare species. Fauna Norvegica 32: 45-52.
    Farran, G. P. 1904. The marine fauna of the west coast of Ireland. Part I. The nudibranchiate molluscs of Ballynakill and Bofin Harbours, Co. Galway. Report Sea & Inland Fisheries Ireland for 1901, pt. 2, append. 8:1-10, pls. 18-19.
    Fernández-Ovies, C. L. 1981. Contribución a la clasificación morfológica de las puestas de los opistobranquios (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Boletín de Ciencias de la Naturaleza del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos 28: 3-12.
    Flanders Marine Institute. 2018. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase: Territorial Seas. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase. (http://www.marineregions.org/).
    Garcia, F. J., and H. Bertsch. 2009. Diversity and distribution of the Gastropoda Opisthobranchia from the Atlantic Ocean: A global biogeographic approach. Scientia Marina. 73: 153–160.
    García Gómez, J. C., J. L. Cervera, and G. Calado. 2011. Familia Calmidae in Gofas S, Moreno D, Salas C. Moluscos marinos de Andalucía. Vol. II. Servicio de Publicaciones e Intercambio Científico, Junta de Andalucía, Málaga, 798.
    García-Gómez, J. C., J. L. Cervera, F. J. García, J. A. Ortea, S. F. García-Martin, A. Medina, and L. P. Burnay. 1991. Resultados de la campaña internacional de biología marina “Algarve 88”: moluscos opistobranquios. Bollettino Malacologico 27 (5-9): 125-138.
    Hecht, E. 1896. Contribution e l’etude des nudibranches. Memoires de la Societe Zoologique de France 8:539- 711, pls. 1-5.
    Høisæter, T. 1986. An annotated check-list of marine molluscs of the Norwegian coast and adjacent waters. Sarsia 71(2):73-175.

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Ballesteros, Manuel, Enric Madrenas, Miquel Pontes (2012-2019) "Calma glaucoides" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 16/05/2012, Accessed: 21/09/2019 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/m9fog)

In order to copy this cite or text fragments you must be a registered user.