Aeolidia papillosa (Linnaeus, 1761)
Aeolidia papillosa by Manuel BallesterosTaxonomy
Aeolidia papillosa (Linnaeus, 1761)
| ||Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)|
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 138709).
- Aeolidia herculea Troschel, 1866
- Aeolidia papillosa var. pacifica Bergh, 1879
- Aeolidia serotina Bergh, 1873
- Aeolis lesliana MacGillivray, 1843
- Aeolis murrayana MacGillivray, 1843
- Doris bodoensis Gunnerus, 1770
- Doris vermigera Turton, 1807
- Eolidia zetlandica Forbes & Goodsir, 1839
- Eolis campbellii Cunningham, 1871
- Eolis cuvieri Lamarck, 1819
- Eolis farinacea Stimpson, 1853
- Eolis obtusalis Alder & Hancock, 1842
- Eolis papillosa (Linnaeus, 1761)
- Eolis papillosa var. albina Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1913
- Eolis plumata Dalyell, 1853
- Eolis rosea Alder & Hancock, 1842
- Limax papillosus Linnaeus, 1761 (original)
This is the largest aeolidacean of the European coasts, where the largest specimens seem to reach up to 12 cm in length, although they are usually about half this size. The body is wide and flat, quite opaque and with a highly variable coloration, with specimens ranging from white to gray to yellowish brown or even purple as the base color, with many spots of white or gray or brown or even dark violet; according to their density, they change the animal’s overall appearance. These spots are more numerous in large specimens. In the front of the head it usually has a “V” shaped stain, it’s base between the rhinophores and with the arms extended to the oral tentacles’ upper side. This stain can also extend to a rhombus or crescent shape over the pericardial area, located behind the rhinophores and not usually be covered by the cerata. The anal papilla, usually white, is hidden under the cerata. The cerata, somewhat darker than the body color, are pointed, often have a white apex and are very numerous, as they are arranged in up to 25 transverse rows of 12-24 cerata per row on each side of the body, they have a somewhat flattened shape and they tend to be “combed” backwards. The first cerata are smaller than the rest and are located well ahead of the rhinophores. Smooth, short and straight, the rhinophores have a conical shape with a truncated tip, and they are contractile. Like the cerata, the rhinophores have light colored apex, whitish or yellowish, and a base color similar or somewhat darker than the body, with a darker shade when contracted. Oral tentacles are somewhat longer than the rhinophores, and are separated by a distance equivalent to three times the base of one of them. The eyes are internal and are located at the base of the rhinophores, although they are usually not visible. The foot is quite wide, especially in the front, where a pair of characteristic propodial tentacles are found. The sole is translucent white and allows to see some pinkish internal organs (genitalia) by transparency. Anatomically it is very similar to A. filomenae, but there are some differences: The cerata of A. filomenae are flattened, slightly hook-shaped and usually have a paler shade than the rest of the body while the cerata A. papillosa are usually darker and thinner.
As the species Aeolidia filomenae, which it has traditionally been confused with, it feeds on sea anemones. In the intertidal and shallow water, even in brackish water, it usually feeds on Actinia equina, but also on Actinia fragacea, Anemonia viridis and Metridium senile. In the sublittoral it is known to feed on Actinothoe sphyrodeta, Aiptasia couchi, Alcyonium digitatum, Anemonia, Sagartia, Sagartiogeton, Anthopleura ballii, Bunodactis, Cereus pedunculatus, Corynactis viridis, Diadumene and Tealia. It has also been found down to 800 meters deep. Before attacking its preys, it widely extends the sensory tentacles and secretes abundant mucus to protect itself against the stinging filaments projected by the anemone when it feels in danger. It is known that, like other aeolidaceans, it is able to store the active nematocysts from the eaten anemones and using them as a defense by passing them to the tips of the cerata. When it feels attacked it releases the accumulated nematocysts, escaping from a dog’s jaws (I.Smith, Conchological Society), or repelling a starfish, that avoided touching it at all ( J.Kocian, 11/07/2007, Sea Slug Forum). Spawn, usually laid on hard substrates between January and August, consists of a string a few millimeters in diameter with capsules containing small white eggs (occasionally pink) arranged in a spiral with a characteristic zigzag. The larvae are dispersed in the plankton after hatching, but smaller juveniles are not usually found on the coasts, as they may live in greater depths.
- Aeolidia from Aeolis, Greek god of the wind
- Papillosa with papillae, short processes
In the European Atlantic coasts it is found from the White Sea to Portugal, passing through the North Sea (in Dutch waters it is one of the most common species, with densities of up to 10 individuals per square meter), the British Isles, English Channel and the French and Spanish Atlantic coast, although it seems to show preference for the colder northern waters. It is also found on the coasts of North America, both the Atlantic and the Pacific, from Alaska to California. The study of Aeolidia papillosa compared with the very similar Aeolidia filomenae reveals that samples from different localities of the Atlantic coast of Europe, attributed so far to the first species actually belong to the second. The accepted variability in the color pattern of the first species masks the existence of a second European pseudocryptic species of this genus.
References for the species: Aeolidia papillosa
MonthThis chart displays the monthly observation probability for Aeolidia papillosa based on our own records.
Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.
Abbott, R. T. 1954. American seashells. With illus. by Frederick M. Bayer. Van Nostrand.
Abbott, R. T. 1974. American seashells. The marine mollusca of the Atlantic and Pacific coast of North America. Van Nostrand, New York. 663 pp., 24 pls. [October 1974].
Aboul Ela, I. A. 1959. On the food of nudibranchs. Biol. Bull. 117(3):439-442.
Adams, J. R. 1972. Marine life in the Morro Bay power plant discharge canal. 37 pp Pacific Gas & Electric Company.
Aerts, L. A. M. 1994. Seasonal distribution of nudibranchs in the southern delta area, S W. Netherlands. J. Molluscan Stud. 60(2):129-139.
Airame, S., E. Cassano, M. Pickett, S. Fangman, S. Hastings, S. Bingham, A. Walton, B. Waltenberger, M. Murray, M. Simon, R. Woodall, and Z. Ugoretz. 2002. Appendix 4. Species of interest in the Channel Islands, for consideration by the marine ecological reserves working group, vii + 119 pp. In: Ugoretz, John. Final environmental document marine protected areas in NOAA’s Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (Sections 27.82, 630, and 632 Title 14, California Code of Regulations) Volume I.
Almaça, C. 1960. Sobre a distribuçào de Aeolidia papillosa (Linné) (Moll. Gast. Opist.). .Boletín de la Sociedad Portuguesa de Ciencias Naturales 2 (8): 209-211.
Altena, C. O. v. R. 1937. Bijdrage tot de Kennis der Fossiele, Subfossiele en recente Mollusken, die op de Nederlansche Stranden Aanspoelen, en Hunner Verspreiding, xii + 184 pp, 12 pls. D. van Sijn & Zonen, Rotterdam.
Anderson, R. C. 1995. Nudibranchs: Butterflies of the Sea. Int. Zool. Yb. 34:65-70, pls. 1-4.
Anderson, J. 1999
. Aeolidia papillosa accessed through: Scottish Nudibranchs on 2014-12-21. (http://www.nudibranch.org/Scottish Nudibranchs/aeolidia-papillosa.html
Angel, H. 1967. Sea-slugs. Animals 10:287-289.
Audesirk, T. E., and G. J. Audesirk. 1985. Behavior of gastropod molluscs; pp 1-94, In: The Mollusca, vol 8, Neurobiology and behavior, part I, xvii + 415 pp. Academic Press.
Augustine, L., and G. Muller Parker. 1998. Selective predation by the mosshead sculpin Clinocottus globiceps on the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and its two algal symbionts. Limnology & Oceanography 43(4):711-715.
Austin, W. C. 1985. An annotated checklist of the marine invertebrates in the cold temperate northeast Pacific. 3 vols., xiv + 682 pp Khoyatan Marine Laboratory.
Averkina, R. F. 1964. A study of the influence of tissue fluid on the nudibranch mollusc (Aeolidia papillosa) on the course of development of the mollusc. Bulletin of Experimental Biology & Medicine 58(1):844-848.
Avila, C. 1998. Chemotaxis in the nudibranch Hermissenda crassicornis: does ingestive conditioning influence its behaviour in a Y-maze? J. Molluscan Stud. 64(2):215-222.
Avila, C. 1995. Natural products of opisthobranch molluscs: a biological review. Oceanography and Mar Biol: an Annual Review 33: 487-559.
Avila, C., E. Tyndale, and A. M. Kuziriam. 1998. Feeding behavior and growth of Hermissenda crassicornis (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) in the laboratory. Marine & Freshwater Behaviour & Physiology 31(1):1-19.
Baba, K. 1935. The fauna of Akkeshi Bay. I. Opisthobranchia. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido Imperial University, series 6, Zoology 4(3):115-125, pls. 7-8.
Baba, K. 1937. Opisthobranchia of Japan (I). Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Kyushu Imperial University 5(4):195-236, pl 4.
Baba, K. 1957. A revised list of the species of Opisthobranchia from the northern part of Japan, with some additional descriptions. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Ser. 6, Zoology, 13(1-4): 8-14.
Baba, K. 1937. Opisthobranchia of Japan (II). Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Kyushu Imperial University 5(7):289-344, pls. 1-2.
Baba, K., and I. Hamatani. 1965. The anatomy of Sakuraeolis enosimensis (Baba, 1930), n. g. (=Hervia ceylonica (?) Eliot, 1913) (Nudibranchia - Eolidoidea). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 13(2):103-113, pls. VIII-X.
Balch, F. N. 1909. A spring collecting trip. Notes on New England nudibranchs II. Nautilus 23(3):33-38.
Ballesteros, M. 1980. Contribución al conocimientos de los Sacoglosos y Nudibranquios (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Estudio anatómico, sistemático y faunístico de las especies del mediterráneo español. Tesis Doctoral.
Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes
. OPK - Opistobranquis. (https://opistobranquis.info/
Barfield, P. 2004. Creature feature, Notes on the natural history of the sea-slug, Aeolidia papillosa (Linnaeus. 1761). Porcupine Marine Natural History Society Newsletter (15):14-17.
Barletta, G., and G. Melone. 1977. Sulla accertata presenze di Aeolidia papillosa (L) in Mediterraneo (Gastropoda Opisthobranchia Nudibranchia). Atti della Societa Italiana de Scienze Naturale e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano 118(2):320-324.
Barletta, G., and G. Melone. 1976. Nudibranchi del Promontorio di Portofino (Genova) (Gastropoda Nudibranchia). Natura, Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali, Milano 67(3-4):203-236.
Barrett, B. E. 1969. Canada’s northeast coast. Oceans 2(2):65- 73.
Bartolomaeus, T. 1989. Larvale Nierenorgane bei Lepidochiton cinereus (Polyplacophora) und Aeolidia papillosa (Gastropoda). Zoomorphology 108(5):297-307.
Baudelot, E. 1863. Recherches sur l’appareil generateur des mollusques gasteropodes. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, comprenant la zoologie, la botanique, l’anatomie et la physiologie comparee des deax regnes et l’histoire des corps organises fossiles, Paris, series 4, 19:135-222, 268-294, pls. 2-5.
Beauchamp, P. de. 1914. Les greves de Roscoff, etude sur la repartition des etres dans la zone des marees. 270 pp, 74 pls. Librairie des Sciences Naturelles, Paul Klincksieck, Paris.
Beaumont, W. I. 1900. Part II.–The benthos (dredging and shore collecting). VII.–Report on the results of dredging and shore- collecting; pp 754-798, In: The fauna and flora of Valencia Harbour on the west coast of Ireland. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, series 3, 5(3):667-854.
Beaumont, W. I. 1900. XII–Report on the opisthobranchiate Mollusca; pp 832-854, In: The fauna and flora of Valencia Harbour on the west coast of Ireland. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, series 3, 5(3):667-854.
Bebbington, A., and T. E. Thompson. 1968. Note sur les opisthobranches du Bassin d’Arcachon. Actes de la Societe Linneenne de Bordeaux, ser. A, 105(5):1-35.
Beeman, R. D. 1968. The use of succinylcholine and other drugs for anesthetizing or narcotizing gastropod molluscs. Pubblicacioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 36:267-270.
Beeman, R. D., and G. C. Williams. 1980. Chapter 14. Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata: the sea slugs and allies; pp 308- 354, pls. 95-111, In: Intertidal invertebrates of California, ix + 690 pp, 200 pls. Stanford University Press.
Behrens, D. W. 1992. Pacific coast nudibranchs, supplement I radula; pp 1-11, illus. Sea Challengers, Monterey, California.
Behrens, D. W. 2004. Pacific Coast nudibranchs, Supplement II. New species to the Pacific Coast and new information on the oldies. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4) 55(2): 11–54.
Behrens, D. W. 1991. Pacific Coast nudibranchs : a guide to the opisthobranchs, Alaska to Baja California. Sea Challengers, Monterey, Calif.
Behrens, D. W. 1980. A review of the literature on the opisthobranch fauna of San Francisco Bay. Opisthobranch Newsletter 12(4-12):34-37.
Behrens, D. W. 1980. Pacific coast nudibranchs, a guide to the opisthobranchs of the northeastern Pacific. 112 pp, 162 photos. Sea Challengers, Los Osos, Calif.
Behrens, D. W., and A. Hermosillo. 2005. Eastern Pacific nudibranchs : a guide of the opisthobranchs from Alaska to Central America. Sea Challengers, Monterey, CA.
Behrens, D. W., C. Petrinos, and C. Schrurs. 2005. Nudibranch behavior. New World Publications, Jacksonville, Fla.
Belcik, F. P. 1975. Additional opisthobranch mollusks from Oregon. Veliger 17(3):276-277.
Benkendorff, K. 1999. Bioactive molluscan resources and their conservation: biological and chemical studies on the egg masses of marine molluscs, xviii.
Bergh, L. S. R. 1874. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Aeolidiaden. II. Verhandlungen der koniglich-kaiserlich Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien (Abhandlungen) 24:395-416, pls. 8-11.
Bergh, L. S. R. 1894. Die Opisthobranchien. Reports on the dredging operations off the west coast of Central America to the Galapagos, to the west coast of Mexico, and in the Gulf of California, in charge of Alexander Agassiz, carried on by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer “Albatross,” during 1891, Lieut. Commander Z. L. Tanner, U.S.N. commanding. Part 13. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 25: 125–233. [October 1894].
Bergh, L. S. R. 1898. Die Opisthobranchier der Sammlung Plate. Zoologische Jahrbucher Supplement 4(3):481-582, pls. 28-33.
Cite this article as:
To copy this cite click on the right button.
Pontes, Miquel, Manuel Ballesteros, Enric Madrenas (2022) "Aeolidia papillosa" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 22/09/2013. Accessed: 17/05/2022. Available at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/mW30v)