Candiella lineata

Candiella lineata (Alder & Hancock, 1848)

Candiella lineata @ Eagle Rock, Garvellachs, Scotland by Jim Anderson

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Cladobranchia  

 

Superfamily

Tritonioidea  

 

Family

Tritoniidae  

 

Subfamily

Tritoniinae  

 

Genus

Candiella  

 

Species

Candiella lineata  (Alder & Hancock, 1848)

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 1669251).
Taxonomic note: Genus Duvaucelia is reinstated after the paper by Korshunova & Martynov (2020) to differentiate the small Tritoniidae with non-bilobed frontal veil and a moderate number of lateral teeth in radula, mostly inhabiting European temperate and subtropical waters.
In 2023 the genus name Duvaucelia changes again to Candiella as per De Vasconcelos et al. (2023) based on the fact that the original description of Duvaucelia gracilis does not refer to a specimen of Duvaucelia manicata (incorrectly synonymized in the past with Duvaucelia gracilis, type species of the genus Duvaucelia), so they propose the synonymy of Duvaucelia gracilis with Marionia blainvillea instead. Therefore, Duvaucelia is currently not a valid genus and the name Candiella is revived based on the type species Candiella plebeia.
Actual species composition for the genus Candiella is: Candiella cincta (Pruvot-Fol 1937) comb. nov., Ca. coralliumrubri (Doneddu et al. 2014) comb. nov., Ca. lineata comb. nov., Ca. manicata comb. nov., Ca. odhneri comb. nov., Ca. pallescens Eliot 1906 comb. nov., Ca. plebeia, Ca. striata comb. nov. and Ca. taliartensis Ortea and Moro, 2009 comb. nov.

Synonyms

  • Tritonia lineata Alder & Hancock, 1848
  • Duvaucelia lineata (Alder & Hancock, 1848)

Description
This nudibranch can reach more than 30 mm in length. The body is long and narrow, with a square section. The body colour is a slightly translucent whitish, revealing creamy coloured organs through the body integument. There are two opaque white lines that run along the margins of the back and enter the bases of the pallial processes and reach the tail, which is long and pointed. The oral veil is not very developed and has 4 palps, the one on the center are the longest. The tip of the oral veil extensions is also coloured opaque white. The rhinophores have a thick main portion pigmented white while the lamellae are semitransparent and directed forward. The rhinophoric sheath is expanded and with a wavy upper edge. The eyes are on the rear base of the rhinophores. The margins of the dorsum have about 4 to 5 pallial semitransparent and slightly branched processes, with the central axis coloured opaque white; the last two of these pallial processes are very small and rudimentary. The foot is narrow and with a rounded front.

Biology
This species has been found living under stones or on rock walls with abundant algae, hydrarians and anthozoans. It is reported that it feeds on hydrozoan Kirchenpaueria pinnata and the stoloniferous octocorals Sarcodictyon catenatum and S. roseum (Bielecki, 2011). The spawn is a semitransparent ribbon wound in an spiral of about 4 turns with white eggs (Alder & Hancock, 1848).

Etymology

  • Candiella. Classic authors did not usually explain the origin of the chosen names.
  • Lineata. From Latín “lineatus”, with lines, lined.

Distribution
This is an European species that, until recently, it was only known from Atlantic waters of northern Europe (British Isles, Norway) to Galicia, Spain (Fernández-Iglesias, 2012) and Euskadi (Naya-Garmendia, 2016). Also in the Mediterranean, in Spain (Ballesteros, 2007; Ballesteros et al., 2019), Croatia (Sea Slug Forum) and Italy (Schmekel & Portmann, 1982).

Known georeferenced records of the species: Candiella lineata
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

Similar species
Candiella odhneri with a opaque white body without white lines. Candiella striata, with a typical black lines pattern. Candiella sp., cryptic species possibly new to science, similar to C.striata but with 4 white longitudinal lines and with no black lines.

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean: ★☆☆☆☆
    Eastern Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Atlantic Ocean: ★★☆☆☆
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Candiella lineata based on our own records.

Videos

 

More pictures

Bibliography

    Ballesteros M. 2007. Lista actualizada de los opistobranquios (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira. 2(3):163–188.
    Ballesteros M, Pontes M, Madrenas E. 2015. Opisthobranch from Medes Islands (Marine Protected Area, Costa Brava, Catalonia, NE Spain): 40 years of study. Available from https://www.facebook.com/people/5th-International-Workshop-on-Opisthobranchs/100072425991990/.
    Ballesteros M, Madrenas E, Pontes M. 2016. Actualización del catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) de las costas catalanas. Spira. 6:1–28.
    Ballesteros M, Madrenas E, Pontes M. 2024. OPK - Opistobranquis. Available from https://opistobranquis.info/.
    Bedulli D, Cattaneo-Vietti R, Chemello R, et al. 1995. Gastropoda Opisthobranchia, Divasibranchia, Gymnomorpha, Fascicolo 15, pp. 1-23.  In: A. Minelli, A. Ruffo, & S. La Posta (Eds.). Checklist delle specie fauna italiana. Bologna: Calderini (Checklist delle specie della Fauna Italiana).
    Bergh LSR. 1884. Report on the Nudibranchiata collected by HMS Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Zoology 10 (part 26): 1-154, pl. 1-14.
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    Bergh LSR. 1908. Malacologische Untersuchungen, In: Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen von Dr Carl Gottfried Semper. Zweiter Theil. Wissenschaftliche Resultate. Band 9, Theil 6, Heft 3; pp 119-181, pls. 9-12.
    Bielecki S, Cavignaux G, Crouzet JM, et al. 2011. Des limaces de rêve.
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    Cattaneo-Vietti R, Barletta G. 1984. Elenco preliminare dei molluschi opistobranchi viventi nel Mediterraneo (Sacoglossa, Pleurobranchomorpha, Acochlidiacea, Aplysiomorpha, Nudibranchia). Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 20(9-12):195-218.
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    Gomez ED. 1973. Observations on feeding and prey specificity of Tritonia festiva (Stearns) with comments on other tritoniids (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Veliger 16(2):163-165.
    Gosliner TM, Ghiselin MT. 1987. A new species of Tritonia (Opisthobranchia: Gastropoda) from the Caribbean Sea. Bulletin of Marine Science. 40(3):428–436. Available from ://WOS:A1987J753100003.
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    Korshunova T, Martynov AV. 2020. Consolidated data on the phylogeny and evolution of the family Tritoniidae (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) contribute to genera reassessment and clarify the taxonomic status of the neuroscience models Tritonia and Tochuina. PLoS ONE. 15(11):e0242103. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242103.
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    McDonald GR, Nybakken JW. 1999. A worldwide review of the food of nudibranch mollusks. II The suborder Dendronotacea. A list of the worldwide food habits of nudibranchs. The Veliger.(42):62–66.
    Sabelli B, Gianuzzi-Savelli R, Bedulli D. 1990. Catalogo annotato dei Molluschi marini del Mediterraneo. Libreria Naturalistica Bolognese. Bologna, Italy: 348 pp.
    Schmekel L. 1968. Ascoglossa, Notaspidea und Nudibranchia im Litoral des Golfes von Neapel. Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 75(6):103–155.
    Schmekel L, Portmann A. 1982. Opisthobranchia des Mittelmeeres, Nudibranchia und Saccoglossa. Fauna e Flora del Golfo Napoli. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 410 p.
    Trainito E. 2005. Nudibranchi del Mediterraneo : guida al riconoscimento dei molluschi opistobranchi. Trezzano sul Naviglio (Milano): Il Castello.
    Trainito E, Doneddu M. 2014. Nudibranchi del Mediterraneo. 2nd. Il Castello. 192 p.
    Trainito E, Trainito S. 2003. Mediterranean harlequins : a field guide to Mediterranean sea slugs. Olbia (SS), Italia: Taphros.
    Vayssiere AJBM. 1901. Etude comparee des Opisthobranches des cotes francaise de l’Ocean Atlantique et de la Manche avec ceux de nos cotes Mediterraneennes. Bulletin Scientifique de la France et de la Belgique 34:281-315.
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    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Pontes, Miquel (2023) "Candiella lineata" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 16/05/2012. Accessed: 23/05/2024. Available at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/?p=542)

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