Candiella lineata

Candiella lineata (Alder & Hancock, 1848)

Candiella lineata @ Eagle Rock, Garvellachs, Scotland by Jim Anderson













































Candiella lineata  (Alder & Hancock, 1848)

 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 1669251).
Taxonomic note: Genus Duvaucelia is reinstated after the paper by Korshunova & Martynov (2020) to differentiate the small Tritoniidae with non-bilobed frontal veil and a moderate number of lateral teeth in radula, mostly inhabiting European temperate and subtropical waters.
In 2023 the genus name Duvaucelia changes again to Candiella as per De Vasconcelos et al. (2023) based on the fact that the original description of Duvaucelia gracilis does not refer to a specimen of Duvaucelia manicata (incorrectly synonymized in the past with Duvaucelia gracilis, type species of the genus Duvaucelia), so they propose the synonymy of Duvaucelia gracilis with Marionia blainvillea instead. Therefore, Duvaucelia is currently not a valid genus and the name Candiella is revived based on the type species Candiella plebeia.
Actual species composition for the genus Candiella is: Candiella cincta (Pruvot-Fol 1937) comb. nov., Ca. coralliumrubri (Doneddu et al. 2014) comb. nov., Ca. lineata comb. nov., Ca. manicata comb. nov., Ca. odhneri comb. nov., Ca. pallescens Eliot 1906 comb. nov., Ca. plebeia, Ca. striata comb. nov. and Ca. taliartensis Ortea and Moro, 2009 comb. nov.


  • Tritonia lineata Alder & Hancock, 1848
  • Duvaucelia lineata (Alder & Hancock, 1848)

This nudibranch can reach more than 30 mm in length. The body is long and narrow, with a square section. The body colour is a slightly translucent whitish, revealing creamy coloured organs through the body integument. There are two opaque white lines that run along the margins of the back and enter the bases of the pallial processes and reach the tail, which is long and pointed. The oral veil is not very developed and has 4 palps, the one on the center are the longest. The tip of the oral veil extensions is also coloured opaque white. The rhinophores have a thick main portion pigmented white while the lamellae are semitransparent and directed forward. The rhinophoric sheath is expanded and with a wavy upper edge. The eyes are on the rear base of the rhinophores. The margins of the dorsum have about 4 to 5 pallial semitransparent and slightly branched processes, with the central axis coloured opaque white; the last two of these pallial processes are very small and rudimentary. The foot is narrow and with a rounded front.

This species has been found living under stones or on rock walls with abundant algae, hydrarians and anthozoans. It is reported that it feeds on hydrozoan Kirchenpaueria pinnata and the stoloniferous octocorals Sarcodictyon catenatum and S. roseum (Bielecki, 2011). The spawn is a semitransparent ribbon wound in an spiral of about 4 turns with white eggs (Alder & Hancock, 1848).


  • Candiella. Classic authors did not usually explain the origin of the chosen names.
  • Lineata. From Latín “lineatus”, with lines, lined.

This is an European species that, until recently, it was only known from Atlantic waters of northern Europe (British Isles, Norway) to Galicia, Spain (Fernández-Iglesias, 2012) and Euskadi (Naya-Garmendia, 2016). Also in the Mediterranean, in Spain (Ballesteros, 2007; Ballesteros et al., 2019), Croatia (Sea Slug Forum) and Italy (Schmekel & Portmann, 1982).

Known georeferenced records of the species: Candiella lineata
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

Similar species
Candiella odhneri with a opaque white body without white lines. Candiella striata, with a typical black lines pattern. Candiella sp., cryptic species possibly new to science, similar to C.striata but with 4 white longitudinal lines and with no black lines.


    Western Mediterranean: ★☆☆☆☆
    Eastern Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Atlantic Ocean: ★★☆☆☆

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Candiella lineata based on our own records.



More pictures


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Further reading

Cite this article as:

Pontes, Miquel (2023) "Candiella lineata" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 16/05/2012. Accessed: 23/05/2024. Available at (

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