Polycera faeroensis

Polycera faeroensis  Lemche, 1929

Polycera faeroensis @ Granada by Luis Sánchez-Tocino

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Doridina  

 

Infraorder

Doridoidei  

 

Superfamily

Polyceroidea  

 

Family

Polyceridae  

 

Subfamily

Polycerinae  

 

Genus

Polycera  

 

Species

Polycera faeroensis  Lemche, 1929

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 140834).
Taxonomical note: Korshunova et al (2021) published their work on Polycera quadrilineata complex, where four species from the European Atlantic shores were recognized, based on a multidisciplinary (molecular, morphological, phylogenetic, phylogeographical and ecological) approach to species determination. In this work, the authors determined that Polycera faeroensis reports included another cryptic species (new to science) that they have named Polycera kernowensis, that can be easily determined by the shape of the structure protecting the gills, one pair of single lateral processes in P. kernowensis, and one pair  of wing-like lateral lobes with multiple small tubercles or projections in P. faeroensis, among other anatomical differences.

Description
Body up to 45 mm long, smooth, semitransparent white with yellow / orange tipped appendages and yellow edge to the tail and foot. It generally lacks yellow spots on the dorsum and body sides, but there could be some. Frontal veil with 6-8 yellow oral tentacles, maximum 14. Ventrally, the head extends into broad oral flaps with some small irregular yellow marks. Rhinophores could be brownish and the distal part has between 18-19 lamellae, maximum 25. Gills are located behind the pericardium and composed of 6-7 branchial leaves, maximum 11. Protecting the gills there are a pair of characteristic wing-like lateral lobes with multiple small, yellow tubercles, more or less evident.

Polycera faeroensis (Pl.25) by Just & Edmunds (1985)

Polycera faeroensis (Pl.25) by Just & Edmunds (1985)

Biology
It lives in rocky bottoms down to 35m, despite in the Faroes it was reported at 120m of depth. It preys on bryozoans Membranipora membranacea, Crisia denticulata, other species of Crisia and the hydroid Hydrallmania falcata (Thompson & Brown, 1976). This species spawns in July in the Atlantic. The egg-string is a ribbon forming a simple coil attached to the substrate by one side, that is slightly widened.

Etymology

  • Polycera. From Greek “polys”, many + “keras”, horns.
  • Faeroensis. From the Faroe Islands (Denmark).

Distribution
Type specimen collected at the Faroe Islands in 1899, it has also been found in the coast of Sweden and the British Isles. Probably it can also be found in the coasts of Denmark and Netherlands. Also present in the Atlantic shores of Spain and Portugal, in the Northern shores of the Alboran Sea, and two records from Mallorca and Cadaqués (Spain).

Known georeferenced records of the species: Polycera faeroensis
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean: ★☆☆☆☆
    Eastern Mediterranean: ☆☆☆☆☆
    Atlantic Ocean: ★☆☆☆☆
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Polycera faeroensis based on our own records.

More pictures

Bibliography

    Alder J, Hancock A. 1854. Notice of some new species of British Nudibranchiata. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 14(79):102–105. Available from www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2283472.
    Alder J, Hancock A. 1854. A monograph of the British nudibranchiate Mollusca: with figures of all the species. Ray Society, London. Available from www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/131598#page/200/mode/1up.
    Anderson J. 1999 2014. Polycera faeroensis accessed through: Scottish Nudibranchs on 2014-12-21. Available from http://www.nudibranch.org/Scottish Nudibranchs/polycera-faeroensis.html.
    Ballesteros M. 1980. Contribución al conocimientos de los Sacoglosos y Nudibranquios (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Estudio anatómico, sistemático y faunístico de las especies del mediterráneo español. Tesis Doctoral. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona.
    Ballesteros M, Madrenas E, Pontes M. 2024. OPK - Opistobranquis. Available from https://opistobranquis.info/.
    Bielecki S, Cavignaux G, Crouzet JM, et al. 2011. Des limaces de rêve.
    Brown GH, Picton BE. 1979. Nudibranchs of the British Isles — a colour guide. Underwater Conservation Society, Manchester, by R. Earll. 30 p.
    Calado G, Urgorri V, Gaspar R, et al. 1999. Catálogo de los moluscos opistobranquios bentónicos de las costas de Setúbal-Espichel (Portugal). Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía) 9: 285-294.
    Calado G, Malaquias M, Gavaia C, et al. 2003. New data on opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the southwestern coast of Portugal. Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía 19 (1-4): 199-204.
    Cattaneo-Vietti R, Barletta G. 1984. Elenco preliminare dei molluschi opistobranchi viventi nel Mediterraneo (Sacoglossa, Pleurobranchomorpha, Acochlidiacea, Aplysiomorpha, Nudibranchia). Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 20(9-12):195-218.
    Cattaneo-Vietti R, Thompson TE. 1989. Mediterranean opisthobranch molluscs: a zoogeographic approach. Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 25(5-8):183-204.
    Cattaneo-Vietti R, Chemello R, Giannuzzi-Savelli R. 1990. Atlas of Mediterranean Nudibranchs. Rome, Italy: La Conchiglia. 264 p.
    Cervera JL, García JC, Toscano F, et al. 1988. Polycera hedgpethi Marcus, 1964 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia), un especie indopacfica descubierta en el Mediterraneo. Iberus 8(2):225-231.
    Cervera JL, Templado J, García-Gómez JC, et al. 1988. Catálogo actualizado y comentado de los Opistobranquios (Mollusca, Gastropoda) de la Península Ibérica, Baleares y Canarias, con algunas referencias a Ceuta y la isla de Alborán. Iberus, supl. 1: 1-84.
    Cervera JL, Calado G, Gavaia C, et al. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
    Debelius H, Kuiter RH. 2007. Nudibranchs of the world. Frankfurt: IKAN- Unterwasserarchiv. 360 pp. p.
    Edmunds M. 1987. Color in opisthobranchs. Western Society of Malacologists Annual Report 19:24.
    Edmunds M. 1987. Color in opisthobranchs. American Malacological Bulletin 5(2):185-196.
    Edmunds M. 1991. Does warning coloration occur in nudibranchs. Malacologia 32(2):241-255.
    Evertsen J, Bakken T. 2005. Nudibranch diversity (Heterobranchia, Gastropoda) along the coast of Norway. Fauna Norvegica, 25: 1-37.
    Evertsen J, Bakken T. 2013. Diversity of Norwegian sea slugs (Nudibranchia): new species to Norwegian coastal waters and new data on distribution of rare species. Fauna Norvegica 32: 45-52. https://doi.org/10.5324/fn.v31i0.1576.
    Garcia FJ, Bertsch H. 2009. Diversity and distribution of the Gastropoda Opisthobranchia from the Atlantic Ocean: A global biogeographic approach. Scientia Marina. 73(1):153–160. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n1153.
    García Gómez JC. 1983. Moluscos opistobranquios del Estrecho de Gibraltar y Bahía de Algeciras. Iberus.(3):41–46.
    García-Gómez JC. 2002. Paradigmas de una fauna insólita; Los moluscos opistobranquios del estrecho de Gibraltar (Serie Ciencias) 20: 397 pp. Instituto de Estudios Gibraltareños. Algeciras, Cádiz, Spain.
    García-Gómez JC. 1983. Moluscos Opistobranquios del Estrecho de Gibraltar y Bahía de Algeciras. Iberus 3: 41-46.
    García-Gómez JC, Cervera JL, García FJ, et al. 1989. Resultados de la Campaña Internacional de Biología Marina “Ceuta-86”: Moluscos Opistobranquios. Bollettino Malacologico. 25:223–232.
    George JD, George JJ. 1979. Marine life, an illustrated encyclopedia of invertebrates in the sea. 288 pp.; pls. 1-128; figs. 1-49 John Wiley & Sons, N.Y.
    Hayward PJ, Ryland JS. 1990. The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.
    Hayward PJ, Wigham GD, Yonow N. 1990. Mollusca I: Polyplacophora, Scaphopoda, and Gastropoda; pp. 628-730, In: , The marine fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe, volume 2, xvi + 996 pp. Oxford University Press.
    Høisæter T. 1986. An annotated check-list of marine molluscs of the Norwegian coast and adjacent waters. Sarsia 71(2):73-175.
    Hunnam P, Brown G. 1975. Sublittoral nudibranch Mollusca (sea slugs) in Pembrokeshire waters. Field Studies 4(2):131-159.
    I.C.Z.N. 1977. Opinion 1085. The author of Polycera faeroensis (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia) is Lemche, 1929. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 34(1):35-36.
    Just H, Edmuns M. 1985. North atlantic nudibranchs (Mollusca) seen by Henning Lemche. Ophelia supplement 2: 1-150.
    Korshunova TA, Driessen FMF, Picton BE, et al. 2021. The multilevel organismal diversity approach deciphers difficult to distinguish nudibranch species complex. Scientific Reports. 11(1):18323. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94863-5.
    Lemche HM. 1929. Gastropoda Opisthobranchiata. The Zoology of the Faroes, 3(1):1-35.
    Lemche HM. 1973. Polycera faeroensis - request for a ruling on authorship and date (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia). Z.N.(S) 2013. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 30(2):91.
    Long SJ. 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
    MacNae W. 1958. The families Polyceridae and Goniodorididae (Mollusca, Nudibranchiata) in southern Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 35(4):341-372, pls. 17-18.
    Malaquias MAE, Sørensen C, Rauch C, et al. 2022. Polycera norvegica is a valid species, and a plea for good taxonomic practices – a reply to Korshunova et al., 2021. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 101(8):1203–1205. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315422000108.
    Marcus EG. 1959. Reports from the Lund University Chile Expedition 1948-49, No. 36. Lamellariacea und Opisthobranchia. Lunds Universitets Arsskrift (Ny Foljd), Avd. 2, 55(9):1-133.
    Martínez-Chacón M. 2018. Nudibranquios de la isla de Tarifa, pequeñas joyas del estrecho de Gibraltar. Junta de Andalucía. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio. Available from http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/medioambiente/portal_web/servicios_generales/doc_tecnicos/2018/nudibranquios_tarifa/nudibranquios_tarifa_web.pdf.
    Martínez-Cueto E, Rodríguez G, Rodríguez MJ, et al. 1990. Contribución al conocimiento de los opistobranquios del Norte y Noroeste de España. Boletín de Ciencias de la Naturaleza del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos. 40:89–101. Available from https://bibliotecavirtual.asturias.es/i18n/catalogo_imagenes/imagen.cmd?path=4006525.
    McDonald G. 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia. 2nd Online Edition, Annotated. 1072 pp  Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz. Available from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8115h0wz.
    Menéndez JL, Oliveros J. 2004 2015. Polycera faeroensis accessed through: AsturNatura on 2015-02-05. Available from http://www.asturnatura.com/especie/polycera-faeroensis.html.
    Naya Garmendia LM. 2016. Nudibranquios de la Costa Vasca: el pequeño Cantábrico multicolor. Aquarium de Donostia-San Sebastián.
    Nunn JD. 2006. The marine Mollusca of Ireland 3. Lough Hyne, Co. Cork. Bulletin of the Irish  Biogeographical Society (30):114-292.
    Ortea J, Rolán E. 1989. Descripcion de una nueva especie del genero Polycera Cuvier, 1816  (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) del archipielago de Cabo Verde. Publicações Ocasionais da Sociedade  Portuguesa de Malacologia (14):23-28, 1 pl.
    Ortea J, Urgorri V. 1981a. Opistobranquios nuevos para el litoral ibérico colectados en Galicia I. Boletín del Instituto Español de Oceanografía 6: 49-60.
    Picton B. 1981. Collections of nudibranch Mollusca from the Republic of Ireland made during 1981. Report to the Praeger Committee, Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 5 unnumbered pp.
    Picton BE, Morrow C. 1994. Polycera faeroensis accessed through: Nudibranchs of the British Isles on 2014-12-14. Available from http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W13620#.

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Pontes, Miquel (2023) "Polycera faeroensis" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 24/10/2012. Accessed: 21/05/2024. Available at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/?p=2431)

To copy this cite click on the right button.