Rubramoena amoena

Rubramoena amoena (Alder & Hancock, 1845)

Rubramoena amoena 6 mm @ Lephinchapel, Loch Fyne, Scotland 15m 5-10-2008 by Jim Anderson










































Rubramoena amoena  (Alder & Hancock, 1845)

 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 890616).

Taxonomic note: The phylogenetic analyses performed by Cella et al. (2016) revealed that the traditional Tergipedidae family is polyphyletic and belongs to a larger monophyletic clade including members of the traditional families Eubranchidae, Fionidae and Calmidae; this was an unexpected result, since the validity of these taxa and their distinctness from the Tergipedidae was never questioned before. They proposed to join the families Tergipedidae, Eubranchidae, Calmidae and Fionidae under the name of Fionidae. Within Fionidae, obtained results demonstrated the need of developing a new classification as previous classifications (for instance, separating Catriona, Cuthona and Trinchesia as distinct taxa) were inconsistent with the resulting phylogeny. Analyses also recover a clade (Tenellia) that includes all members of the genera Tenellia, Trinchesia, Phestilla, Catriona and the majority of described and undescribed Cuthona species. New genera Rubramoena, Abronica and Tergiposacca are proposed to group other species. This molecular study also suggests that Fionidae is rich in cryptic species complexes, difficult to separate by traditional taxonomic characters, and a great previously undetected species diversity.
A few months later Korshunova et al. (2017) take up the study of the phylogeny of the Tergipedidae and using not only molecular data but also morphological and ontogenetic data they severely criticise the work by Cella et al. (2016), proposing to reinstate the families Calmidae, Eubranchidae, Fionidae, Tergipedidae, Cuthonidae, Cuthonellidae and Trinchesiidae, the latter being the most abundant in specific taxa. They also reinstate the genera Catriona, Diaphoreolis, Phestilla and Trinchesia that in the paper by Cella et al. (2016) had been included in the genus Tenellia. Korshunova et al. also describe a new genus, Zelentia that includes Z. pustulata (type species Eolis pustulataAlder & Hancock, 1854), Z. fulgens (MacFarland, 1966) and a new species from the Barents Sea, Z. ninel, indicating important p-distances among the three species (between 10.49% and 13.83%). All previous genera, Korshunova et al. (2017) consider them within the family Trinchesiidae. They also question the validity of the Rubramoena genus of Cella et al.
The position of WoRMS is conservative, maintaining the families Cuthonidae, Calmidae, Cuthonellidae, Eubranchidae, Fionidae, Pseudovermidae, Tergipedidae and Trinchesiidae within the superfamily Fionoidea. The European species that, until recently, were considered as Cuthona, WoRMS considers them within the genus Trinchesia, as T.albopunctata, T.caerulea, T.foliata, T.genovae, T.granosa, T.ilonae, T.miniostriata and T.ocellata. Rubramoena is also considered a valid genus in WoRMS. These opinions are those that we accept in OPK while no other more conclusive data are available.

Tot i que els darrers treballs questionen la validesa del gènere Rubroamoena, a falta de millors alternatives mantenim la proposta de Cella et al. (2016) per ubicar les antigues espècies Cuthona amoena i Cuthona rubescens en aquest gènere. Ambdues espècies son aparentment similars, però Picton i Brown (1978) van destacar-ne les diferències principals en la seva descripció de Cuthona rubescens.


  • Eolis amoena Alder & Hancock, 1845
  • Trinchesia amoena (Alder & Hancock, 1845)
  • Cuthona amoena (Alder & Hancock, 1845)

Normalment mesura uns 10 mm de longitud, té un cos translúcid amb taques de color marró a la base de les cerata, i uns anells de color marró característics als rinòfors i tentacles orals. La part superior del cos i les cerates estan esquitxades amb punts irregulars de color daurat o groguenc, essent més densos a les puntes dels tentacles del cap i les cerata. Les mandíbules són visibles per transparència al cap. El peu és estret, amb la vora anterior lleugerament lobulada, i una mica arrodonit i ampliat pels costats.

Es troba generalment en les colònies de l’hidrari Halecium halecinum, que sembla ser el seu aliment. La posta està formada per un cordó blanc i fi, fistonat, generalment enrotllat al voltant de les branques del seu aliment, o bé formant una espiral de dues o tres voltes.


  • Rubramoena. Es refereix als noms específics de les dues espècies que conté, Rubramoena amoena (espècie tipus) i Rubramoena rubescens.
  • Amoena. Forma femenina de la paraula llatina “amoenus”, agradable, bonic.

From Norway and the Orkney Islands to Gibraltar. Common around the British Isles and Ireland. In the Iberian Peninsula it has been reported on the Cantabrian coast, also in Galicia and Portugal. The Mediterranean reports from Catalonia (Cadaqués, Begur, Palamós, Sant Feliu de Guíxols and Mataró), Italian Salento, Malta and the Adriatic Sea probably correspond to one or two different species not yet described.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Rubramoena amoena
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

References for the species: Rubramoena amoena

Espècies semblants
Trinchesia albopunctata és més petita, amb el puntejat del cos blanc (no groguenc), sense bandes marrons als rinòfors i tentacles orals que tenen, però, una banda sense puntuacions. Rubramoena sp. with brown rings on rhinophores and oral tentacles, body without yellowish punctuations, with or without a white dorsal band.


    Western Mediterranean:0 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:0 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:2 out of 5 stars

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Rubramoena amoena based on our own records.

Altres fotos


Further reading

Cite this article as:

Pontes, Miquel, Manuel Ballesteros, Enric Madrenas (2021) "Rubramoena amoena" in OPK-Opistobranquis. Published: 17/05/2012. Accessed: 04/08/2021. Available at (

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