Doridoidei

Doridacean nudibranchs are characterized by having a more or less dorsoventrally flattened body, by the presence of large mantle that may have embedded spicules and may also have different projections (tubers, papillae) and the existence of a dorsal branchial plume formed by several branchial leaves surrounding the anus. Rhinophores are found in the anterior region of the notum, provided with lamellae and retractile (cryptobranch doridaceans) or just contractile (fanerobranch doridaceans).

Felimare picta by Enric Madrenas

The doridaceans are carnivorous and feed primarily on sponges and bryozoans. They feed by using their radula, that can have some to many teeth on each row, but the species of the family Dendrodorididae lack any radula at all, and feed by sucking food with their suctorial type buccal bulb. Many doridacean species have external parasites of the Copepod Crustaceans group, often of the Splanchnotrophidae family, moving primarily around the ​​gill leaves. Doridaceans have the most powerful defense mechanisms within the nudibranchs. Many species of several families present some mantle glands called MDF (for “Mantle Dermal Formations”) where they accumulate several secondary metabolites that have a large antidepredant effect when they are expelled to the outside, which happens easily when the animal is disturbed. These powerful defensive substances have allowed these nudibranchs to acquire flashy colorations  in the course of evolution, called warning (or aposematic) colorations, to prevent attacks by their possible predators.

Classification

The updated doridaceans taxonomy proposed by Bouchet et al. (2017) and accepted at WoRMS is as follows:

  • Infraorder Doridoidei
    • Superfamily Doridoidea Rafinesque, 1815
      • Family Actinocyclidae O’Donoghue, 1929
        • Genus Actinocyclus Ehrenberg, 1831
        • Genus Hallaxa Eliot, 1909
      • Family Cadlinidae Bergh, 1891
        • Genus Aldisa Bergh, 1878
        • Genus Cadlina Bergh, 1879
      • Family Chromodorididae Bergh, 1891
        • Genus Ardeadoris Rudman, 1984
        • Genus Berlanguella Ortea, Bacallado & Valdés, 1992
        • Genus Cadlinella Thiele, 1931
        • Genus Ceratosoma A. Adams & Reeve, 1850
        • Genus Chromodoris Alder & Hancock, 1855
        • Genus Diversidoris Rudman, 1987
        • Genus Doriprismatica d’Orbigny, 1839
        • Genus Felimare Ev. Marcus & Er. Marcus, 1967
        • Genus Felimida Ev. Marcus, 1971
        • Genus Glossodoris Ehrenberg, 1831
        • Genus Goniobranchus Pease, 1866
        • Genus Hypselodoris Stimpson, 1855
        • Genus Mexichromis Bertsch, 1977
        • Genus Miamira Bergh, 1874
        • Genus Thorunna Bergh, 1878
        • Genus Tyrinna Bergh, 1898
        • Genus Verconia Pruvot-Fol, 1931
      • Family Discodorididae Bergh, 1891
        • Genus Alloiodoris Bergh, 1904
        • Genus Aporodoris Ihering, 1886
        • Genus Argus Bohadsch, 1761
        • Genus Asteronotus Ehrenberg, 1831
        • Genus Atagema Gray, 1850
        • Genus Baptodoris Bergh, 1884
        • Genus Carminodoris Bergh, 1889
        • Genus Diaulula Bergh, 1878
        • Genus Dictyodoris Bergh, 1880
        • Genus Discodoris Bergh, 1877
        • Genus Gargamella Bergh, 1894
        • Genus Geitodoris Bergh, 1891
        • Genus Gravieria Vayssiere, 1912
        • Genus Halgerda Bergh, 1880
        • Genus Hiatodoris Dayrat, 2010
        • Genus Hoplodoris Bergh, 1880
        • Genus Jorunna Bergh, 1876
        • Genus Nirva Bergh, 1905
        • Genus Nophodoris Valdés & Gosliner, 2001
        • Genus Paradoris Bergh, 1884
        • Genus Peltodoris Bergh, 1880
        • Genus Peronodoris Bergh, 1904
        • Genus Platydoris Bergh, 1877
        • Genus Rostanga Bergh, 1879
        • Genus Sclerodoris Eliot, 1904
        • Genus Sebadoris Er. Marcus & Ev. Marcus, 1960
        • Genus Taringa Er. Marcus, 1955
        • Genus Tayuva Er. Marcus & Ev. Marcus, 1967
        • Genus Thordisa Bergh, 1877
        • Genus Thorybopus Bouchet, 1977
      • Family Dorididae Rafinesque, 1815
        • Genus Aphelodoris Bergh, 1879
        • Genus Artachaea Bergh, 1881
        • Genus Conualevia Collier & Farmer, 1964
        • Genus Doriopsis Pease, 1860
        • Genus Doris Linnaeus, 1758
        • Genus Goslineria Valdés, 2001
        • Genus Pharodoris Valdés, 2001
        • Subfamily Miamirinae Bergh, 1891
    • Superfamily Onchidoridoidea Gray, 1827
      • Family Akiodorididae Millen & Martynov, 2005
        • Genus Akiodoris Bergh, 1879
        • Genus Armodoris Minichev, 1972
        • Genus Doridunculus G.O. Sars, 1878
        • Genus Echinocorambe Valdés & Bouchet, 1998
        • Genus Prodoridunculus Thiele, 1912
      • Family Calycidorididae Roginskaya, 1972
        • Genus Calycidoris Abraham, 1876
        • Genus Diaphorodoris Iredale & O’Donoghue, 1923
      • Family Corambidae Bergh, 1871
        • Genus Corambe Bergh, 1869
        • Genus Loy Martynov, 1994
        • Genus Hypobranchiaea A. Adams, 1847 (taxon inquirendum)
      • Family Goniodorididae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854
        • Genus Ancula Lovén, 1846
        • Genus Goniodoridella Pruvot-Fol, 1933
        • Genus Goniodoris Forbes & Goodsir, 1839
        • Genus Lophodoris G.O. Sars, 1878
        • Genus Murphydoris Sigurdson, 1991
        • Genus Okenia Menke, 1830
        • Genus Spahria Risbec, 1928
        • Genus Trapania Pruvot-Fol, 1931
      • Family Onchidorididae Gray, 1827
        • Genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850
        • Genus Adalaria Bergh, 1878
        • Genus Knoutsodonta Hallas & Gosliner, 2015
        • Genus Onchidoris Blainville, 1816
        • Genus Onchimira Martynov, Korshunova, Sanamyan N. & Sanamyan K., 2009
    • Superfamily Phyllidioidea Rafinesque, 1814
      • Family Dendrodorididae O’Donoghue, 1924 (1864)
        • Genus Cariopsilla Ortea & Espinosa, 2006
        • Genus Dendrodoris Ehrenberg, 1831
        • Genus Doriopsilla Bergh, 1880
      • Family Mandeliidae Valdés & Gosliner, 1999
        • Genus Mandelia Valdés & Gosliner, 1999
      • Family Phyllidiidae Rafinesque, 1814
        • Genus Ceratophyllidia Eliot, 1903
        • Genus Phyllidia Cuvier, 1797
        • Genus Phyllidiella Bergh, 1869
        • Genus Phyllidiopsis Bergh, 1876
        • Genus Reticulidia Brunckhorst, 1990
    • Superfamily Polyceroidea Alder & Hancock, 1845
      • Family Aegiridae P. Fischer, 1883
        • Genus Aegires Lovén, 1844
        • Genus Notodoris Bergh, 1875
      • Family Hexabranchidae Bergh, 1891
        • Genus Hexabranchus Ehrenberg, 1828
      • Family Okadaiidae Baba, 1930
        • Genus Vayssierea Risbec, 1928
      • Family Polyceridae Alder & Hancock, 1845
        • Subfamily Kalinginae Pruvot-Fol, 1956
          • Genus Kalinga Alder & Hancock, 1864
        • Subfamily Kankelibranchinae Ortea, Espinosa & Caballer, 2005
          • Genus Kankelibranchus Ortea, Espinosa & Caballer, 2005
        • Subfamily Nembrothinae Burn, 1967
          • Genus Martadoris Willan & Chang, 2017
          • Genus Nembrotha Bergh, 1877
          • Genus Roboastra Bergh, 1877
          • Genus Tambja Burn, 1962
          • Genus Tyrannodoris Willan & Chang, 2017
        • Subfamily Polycerinae Alder & Hancock, 1845
          • Genus Greilada Bergh, 1894
          • Genus Palio Gray, 1857
          • Genus Polycera Cuvier, 1816
          • Genus Polycerella A. E. Verrill, 1880
          • Genus Thecacera Fleming, 1828
        • Subfamily Triophinae Odhner, 1941
          • Genus Colga Bergh, 1880
          • Genus Crimora Alder & Hancock, 1862
          • Genus Heteroplocamus W. R. B. Oliver, 1915
          • Genus Holoplocamus Odhner, 1926
          • Genus Joubiniopsis Risbec, 1928
          • Genus Kaloplocamus Bergh, 1880
          • Genus Limacia O. F. Müller, 1781
          • Genus Plocamopherus Rüppell & Leuckart, 1828
          • Genus Triopha Bergh, 1880

Doridacean species recorded in the Mediterranean or around the Iberian Peninsula:

Felimida purpurea @ Cala Montgó, L'Escala, Spain 5-03-2016 by Miquel Pontes

Chromodoridoidea

Rostanga rubra by Miquel Pontes

Doridoidea

Okenia elegans 28mm @ Kašuni, Split (Croatia) 4-03-2016 7m by Jakov Prkić

Onchidoridoidea

Dendrodoris limbata (adult) @ Costa Brava (Spain) by Miquel Pontes

Phyllidioidea

Palio nothus @ Loch Sween, Scotland 20160206 by Matt Barnes (NE Atlantic Nudibranchs )

Polyceroidea

Bibliography