Phylliroe lichtensteinii

Phylliroe lichtensteinii  Eschscholtz, 1825

Phylliroe lichtensteinii 3-01-2017 by Linda Ianniello

Taxonomy
 

Superdomain

Biota  

 

Kingdom

Animalia  

 

Phylum

Mollusca  

 

Class

Gastropoda  

 

Subclass

Heterobranchia  

 

Infraclass

Euthyneura  

 

Subterclass

Ringipleura  

 

Superorder

Nudipleura  

 

Order

Nudibranchia  

 

Suborder

Cladobranchia  

 

Superfamily

[unassigned] Cladobranchia  

 

Family

Phylliroidae  

 

Genus

Phylliroe  

 

Species

Phylliroe lichtensteinii  Eschscholtz, 1825

 
 Classification according to Bouchet et al. (2017)
Taxonomic source: World Register of Marine Species (AphiaID: 536862).
Synonyms

  • Phylliroe amboinensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1832
  • Phylliroe atlantica Bergh, 1871
  • Phylliroe lichtensteini Eschscholtz, 1825
  • Phylliroe rubra Quoy & Gaimard, 1832
  • Phylliroe pelagica H. Adams & A. Adams, 1858
  • Phylliroe roseum D’Orbigny, 1836

Description
Fish-like, laterally flattened body, up to about 55 mm in length, without papillae and completely transparent. The tail is short, less than 16% of the body length. The foot is reduced to a pedal gland not disrupting the body outline. The head, before the relatively small rhinophores, is directed downwards, with a terminal mouth. The anus is located on the right lateral side in the centre of the body. The digestive gland and other organs are visible through the skin by transparency. The digestive gland has no constriction in the middle, which is characteristic of Phylliroe lichtensteinii. Literature is pretty confuse with the species of Phylliroe, species determination traits range from the presence of a restriction in the digestive gland to the number of gonads, and then from the number of gonads: P.bucephala is said to have 2 gonads, while P.lichtensteinii is said to have from 3 to 5, but the fact is these beautiful species have been neglected in many studies and identification is not clear.

Biology
This species is hermaphroditic.  The juveniles have been reported to parasitise the medusae of the cnidarian Zanclea, attaching to the inside of the bell, on which they feed and remain until adulthood. In adulthood its diet is no longer restricted to Zanclea, although observations of feeding behaviour are sparse. Phylliroe has been seen approaching a swarm of the larvacean Oikopleura albicans from below, grabbing a specimen with its paired denticulate jaws and swallowing it in half a minute. Adults have also been observed to prey on the medusa AequoreaThis is a pelagic species that is highly bioluminescent and emits flashes of light when disturbed. Despite it seems to prefer the upper water layers, vertical distribution for this species suggests that it lives at a depth of about 60 meters (Fernández-Álamo, 1997) and, at night, participates in a vertical migration towards the surface. It does not like light, so when it is discovered by a diver, begins to swim towards deep water (L.Ianello, pers.comm.).

Etymology

  • Phylliroe, from Greek “phyllon”, leaf + “roe”, water current, or water flow.
  • Lichtensteinii, honors Martin Heinrich Lichtenstein, German physician, explorer and naturalist who, in 1844, published descriptions of animals collected around Australia. He worked at the Zoological Institute in Berlin.

Distribution
This species is known from the warm waters of Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, also in the Mediterranean.

Known georeferenced records of the species: Phylliroe lichtensteinii
Sources:
: OBIS
: GROC 2010-2011
: Enric Madrenas
: João Pedro Silva
: Bernard Picton
: GBIF.ORG
: OPK
: VIMAR
: Manuel Ballesteros.
: M@re Nostrum
: Altres fonts
: Marine Regions

Abundance

    Western Mediterranean:1 out of 5 stars
    Eastern Mediterranean:0 out of 5 stars
    Atlantic Ocean:1 out of 5 stars
Month

This chart displays the monthly observation probability for Phylliroe lichtensteinii based on our own records.

More pictures

Bibliography

    Abbott, R. T. 1974. American seashells. The marine mollusca of the Atlantic and Pacific coast of North America. Van Nostrand, New York. 663 pp., 24 pls. [October 1974].
    Angulo-Campillo, O. 2005. A four year survey of the opisthobranch fauna (Gastropoda,  Opisthobranchia) from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Vita Malacologica 3:43-50.
    Austin, W. C. 1985. An annotated checklist of the marine invertebrates in the cold temperate northeast Pacific. 3 vols., xiv + 682 pp Khoyatan Marine Laboratory.
    Baba, K. 1937. Opisthobranchia of Japan (II). Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Kyushu Imperial University 5(7):289-344, pls. 1-2.
    Ballesteros, M. 1980. Contribución al conocimientos de los Sacoglosos y Nudibranquios (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Estudio anatómico, sistemático y faunístico de las especies del mediterráneo español. Tesis Doctoral. Universitat de Barcelona.
    Ballesteros, M., E. Madrenas, and M. Pontes. 2019. OPK - Opistobranquis. (https://opistobranquis.info/).
    Barletta, G. 1976. Considerazioni sulla bionomia dei “Nudibranchi” e sulla loro alimentazione (nota preliminare). Conchiglie (Notiziario Mensile della Unione Malacologica Italiana) 12(5-6):117-128.
    Barletta, G. 1981. Gasteropodi nudi (Pleurobranchomorpha, Sacoglossa, Aplysiomorpha e Nudibranchia) Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, Guide per il riconoscimento delle specie animali delle acque lagunari e costiere italiane AQ/1/92, 3. Quaderni della Civica Stazione Idrobiologica di Milano (9):1-124.
    Barletta, G., and G. Melone. 1976. Nudibranchi del Promontorio di Portofino (Genova) (Gastropoda Nudibranchia). Natura, Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali, Milano 67(3-4):203-236.
    Basedow, H., and C. Hedley. 1905. South Australian nudibranchs, and an enumeration of the known Australian species. Transactions, Proceedings & Reports of the Royal Philosophical Society of South Australia 29: 134-160, pls. 1-12.
    Bedulli, D., R. Cattaneo-Vietti, R. Chemello, F. Ghisotti, and F. Giovine. 1995. Gastropoda Opisthobranchia, Divasibranchia, Gymnomorpha, Fascicolo 15, pp. 1-23.  In: A. Minelli, A. Ruffo, & S. La Posta (Eds.). Checklist delle specie fauna italiana, Checklist delle specie della Fauna Italiana. Calderini, Bologna.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1900. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific (Schauinsland 1896-1897). Die Opisthobranchier. Zoologische Jahrbücher, 13: 207–246, pl. 19-21.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1871. Beitrage zur kenntnis der Mollusken des Sargassomeeres. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-königlichen Zoologisch-botanisch Gesellschaft in Wien, 21: 1273-1306.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1899. Nudibranches et Marsenia provenant des campagnes de la Princesse-Alice (1891-1897). Résultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert 1er, Prince souverain de Monaco, 14: 1-45, 2 pls.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1905. Die Opisthobranchiata der Siboga-Expedition. Monographie 50, pp. 1-248, pls. 1-20.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1873. Malacologische Untersuchungen. In: Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen von Dr.  Carl Gottfried Semper. Zweiter Theil. Wissenschaftliche Resultate. Band 2, Theil 1, Heft 5, pp. 205246,  pls. 25-31.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1890. Die cladohepatischen Nudibranchien. Zoologische Jahrbucher, Abtheilung fur Systematik Geographie und Biologie der Thiere 5:1-75.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1884. Report on the Nudibranchiata collected by HMS Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Zoology 10 (part 26): 1-154, pl. 1-14.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1900. Nudibranchiate Gasteropoda. [in] The Danish Ingolf-Expedition. Journal de conchyliologie 2(3): 1-49, pl. 1-5.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1899. Nudibranchiate Gasteropoder, in: Den Danske Ingolf-Expedition, 2 (3): 1-46.
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1908. Malacologische Untersuchungen, In: Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen von Dr Carl Gottfried Semper. Zweiter Theil. Wissenschaftliche Resultate. Band 9, Theil 6, Heft 3; pp 119-181, pls. 9-12.
    Bergh, R. 1892. System der Nudibranchiaten Gasteropoden. Malacologische Untersuchungen. In: Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen von Dr. Carl Gottfried Semper. Zweiter Theil#Wissenschaftliche Resultate. Band 7, Theil 5. [pp. 1–51, pls 1–4, Mar. 1897; pp. 53–115, pls 5–8, Dec. 1897; pp. 117–158, pls 9–12, Nov. 1898; pp. 159–208, pls 13–16, 27 Mar. 1900; pp. 209–256, pls 17–20, 29 Jan. 1901; pp. 257–312, pls. 21–24, 15 Oct. 1901; pp. 313–382, pls 25–29, 7 Oct. 1902].
    Bergh, L. S. R. 1878. Malacologische Untersuchungen, In: Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen von Dr Carl Gottfried Semper. Zweiter Theil. Wissenschaftliche Resultate. Band 2, Theil 2, Heft 14; pp 603-645, I-L, pls. 66-68.
    Bertolini, F. 1935. Note sulla sistematica dei Phylliroidae. Pubblicacioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 15(1):60-70.
    Bouchet, P., and J. P. Rocroi. 2005. Part 2. Working classification of the Gastropoda. Malacologia, 47: 239-283.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R. 1990. Colore e mimetismo negli opistobranchi. Lavori della Societa di Malacologia 23:217-228.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R. 1986. Alcune considerazioni sui molluschi opistobranchi del Mar Ligure. Lavori Societa Italiana di Malacologia 22:85-96.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and G. Barletta. 1984. Elenco preliminare dei molluschi opistobranchi viventi nel Mediterraneo (Sacoglossa, Pleurobranchomorpha, Acochlidiacea, Aplysiomorpha, Nudibranchia). Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 20(9-12):195-218.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and R. Chemello. 1987. Alcune considerazioni sui molluschi opistobranchi della Sicilia. Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 23(5-8):207-222.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and T. E. Thompson. 1989. Mediterranean opisthobranch molluscs: a zoogeographic approach. Bollettino Malacologico (Pubblicazione Mensile Edita dalla Societa Italiana di Malacologia) 25(5-8):183-204.
    Cattaneo-Vietti, R., R. Chemello, and R. Giannuzzi-Savelli. 1990. Atlante dei nudibranchi del Mediterraneo. La Conchiglia, Rome 264 pp, 14 pls. (104 clr. ill), line drawings.
    Cervera, J. L., J. Templado, J. C. García-Gómez, M. Ballesteros, J. Ortea, F. J. García, J. Ros, and A. A. Luque. 1988. Catálogo actualizado y comentado de los Opistobranquios (Mollusca, Gastropoda) de la Península Ibérica, Baleares y Canarias, con algunas referencias a Ceuta y la isla de Alborán. Iberus, supl. 1: 1-84.
    Cervera, J. L., G. Calado, C. Gavaia, M. A. E. Malaquías, J. Templado, M. Ballesteros, J. C. García-Gómez, and C. Megina. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Boletín Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 20 (1-4): 1-111. L.
    Costa, A. 1863. Sulla Phylliroe bucephala. Rendiconto dell’ Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Mathematiche, Societa Reale di Napoli 2(4):110-112.
    D’Orbigny, A. 1834. Voyage dans l’Amérique méridionale... exécuté pendant les années 1826, 1827, 1828, 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832 et 1833. P. Bertrand, Paris, and Levrault, Strasbourg. Available online from Biodiversity Heritage Library [Text] [Atlas].
    Eschscholtz, J. F. 1825. Bericht über die zoologische Ausbeute während der Reise von Kronstadt bis St. Peter und Paul. Isis 1825: 733-747.
    Eschscholtz, J. F. 1831. Zoologischer Atlas - Beschreibungen neuer Thierarten, während des Flottcapitains von Kotzebue zweiter Reise um die Welt, auf der Russisch-Kaiserlichen Kriegsschlupp Predpriaetië in den Jahren 1823-1826. G. Reimer, Berlin pt. 4: 1-19, pl. 16-20.
    Fernández-Álamo, M. A. 1997. Distribucion horizontal y vertical de Phylliroe bucephala y Cephalopyge trematoides (Opisthobranchia-Nudibranchia) en el Golfo de California. Hidrobiologica (Iztapalapa) 7:75-80.
    Fischer, M. A. 2006. Opisthobranchs from the Chilean coast, a taxonomic, morphological and  histological study of nudibranch species.
    Flanders Marine Institute. 2018. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase: Territorial Seas. Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase. (http://www.marineregions.org/).
    Garcia, F. J., and H. Bertsch. 2009. Diversity and distribution of the Gastropoda Opisthobranchia from the Atlantic Ocean: A global biogeographic approach. Scientia Marina. 73: 153–160.
    Gasca, R., and E. Suarez Morales. 1994. An Illustrated Record of Phylliroe bucephala Peron and Lesueur (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) in the Gulf of Mexico. Investigaciones Marinas CICIMAR 9(2):109-111.
    George, J. D., and J. J. George. 1979. Marine life, an illustrated encyclopedia of invertebrates in the sea. 288 pp.; pls. 1-128; figs. 1-49 John Wiley & Sons, N.Y.
    Hernández, F., and A. De Vera. 2010. Nudibranquios holoplanctónicos en el Atlántico Noreste (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, Phylliroidea). Vieraea 38: 133-139.
    Lalli, C. M., and R. W. Gilmer. 1989. Pelagic snails. The biology of holoplanktonic gastropod mollusks. Stanford, California (Stanford University Press): viii +259 pp, 25 tabs, 76 figs, 16 color figs.
    Lamarck, J. B. P. A. d. M. 1816. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature, 23(4). (Paris (Agasse): pls 315-390; 116, pls 391488.
    Long, S. J. 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000. Bayside Books & Press, Tustin, CA, U.S.A. 672p.
    Malaquias, M. A. E. 2001. Updated and annotated checklist of the opisthobranch molluscs (excluding Thecosomata and Gymnosomata), from the Azores archipelago (North Atlantic Ocean, Portugal). Iberus 19 (1): 37-48.
    Marcus, E. d. B. R. 1977. An annotated checklist of the western Atlantic warm water opisthobranchs. J. Molluscan Stud., Suppl 4:1-23.
    Marcus, E. d. B. R., and E. G. Marcus. 1964. Verzeichnis der euthyneuren Meeresschneken Brasiliens. Beitrage zur Neotropischen Fauna 3(3):195-206.

    Bibliography based on the works by Steve Long, 2006. Bibliography of Opisthobranchia 1554-2000 and Gary McDonald, 2009. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, with later updates from other resources.

Further reading

Cite this article as:

Pontes, Miquel, Manuel Ballesteros, Enric Madrenas (2012-2019) "Phylliroe lichtensteinii" in OPK-Opistobranquis, Published: 24/04/2016, Accessed: 11/11/2019 at (https://opistobranquis.info/en/KvXmx)

In order to copy this cite or text fragments you must be a registered user.